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Social engineering, ‘a rebirth of the nation’, and a significant building block in China’s creeping genocide
Anna Hayes

–62 . Millward , James , and Nabijan Tursun ( 2004 ). ‘ Political History and Strategies of Control, 1884–1978 ’, in S. Frederick Starr (ed.), Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland ( New York : M. E. Sharpe ), 63–98 . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( n.d. ). ‘ Significant Earthquake: China, Xinjiang, Turkestan 22 August 1902 ’,

in The Xinjiang emergency
Repression in the Uyghur region now and then
Sandrine Catris

Xinjiang, we see the messiness of this movement mobilized from the top that had become a mass movement. For example, Eziz Saypedin, who had been part of the Eastern Turkestan Republic (ETR) of 1944–49, and was its sole leadership survivor, would be protected on more than one occasion from Red Guards by Zhou Enlai (Cultural Revolution Database 2009a ). The less fortunate Burhan Shahidi who had been a bureaucrat in the Nationalist government of Xinjiang, however, would be beaten, humiliated, and imprisoned for about ten years. His crime was his historical ties to the

in The Xinjiang emergency
The Xinjiang emergency in China’s ‘new type of international relations’
David Tobin

). 25 Following incorporation of the ‘Western Regions’ ( xiyu ) into the Manchu state, it was renamed ‘new frontier’ ( Xinjiang ) in 1884. Uyghurs reject this as a colonial name and call their homeland ‘East Turkestan’. 26 The term minority refers to official Chinese thought. Uyghurs and Tibetans object to the term, spatially conceptualizing the relevant territory as ‘East Turkestan’ and

in The Xinjiang emergency
Abstract only
Elizaveta Gaufman

Russian Empire and, probably, most importantly for some, was an ancestor of “the Sun of Russian poetry” – Alexander Pushkin. These cases, however, did not mean that the Russian Imperial colonization policy did not regard the inhabitants of conquered territories in Siberia, the Caucasus or “Turkestan” (Central Asia) as barbarians who had to be civilized. Hence, the Russian

in Everyday foreign policy
Ayla Göl

Afghans to sign the Soviet–Afghan Treaty in March 1921. The continued Soviet support for Enver could harm the new status quo in the East.81 Enver was himself dissatisfied with the new Turkish–Soviet status quo when he arrived in Bukhara at the beginning of November 1921. He decided to work for the liberation of Turkestan by uniting the local dissidents, rather than by continuing his uncertain role as a communist agent.82 It was believed at the time that the British government was providing him with ammunition, arms and money.83 When he joined the Basmachi movement

in Turkey facing east
The 1916 rebellion in the Kazakh steppe in long-term perspective (c. 1840–1930)
Xavier Hallez
Isabelle Ohayon

’ administrator who wanted to benefit from his talents. A conflict later ensued and Rysqul murdered Making political rebellion “primitive”     265 the volost’ administrator. It led him to his death during exile to Siberia. His celebrity was widely advertised in many legends and stories, where this episode was depicted as an act of resistance against the oppression of a native official.46 The shift from batyr to barymtashy was already perceptible in local uprisings resulting from the 1868 statutes and the creation of the Governorate-​General of Turkestan and the steppes

in The Central Asian Revolt of 1916
Matt McDonald

Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) a ‘terrorist organisation’, in what was widely perceived as a quid pro quo for Chinese support in the broader ‘war on terror’ ( Lam, 2002 ). The Malaysian government has also proved eager to define political repression as part of the ‘war on terror’, introducing a series of restrictive measures under an

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific
Abstract only
Thomas Linehan

the perceived visual and technical accomplishment of Soviet productions like 149 Linehan 08 150 13/6/07 11:34 Page 150 Communism in Britain 1920–39 Victor Turin’s Turksib (1930), a documentary film on the building of the Turkestan to Siberia railway, or Alexander Dovzhenko’s The Earth (1930) depicting the working lives of the Ukrainian peasantry.22 While the latter was, in truth, a contrived gloss over of the brutal reality of Ukrainian collectivisation, Bond preferred to tell his readers about the poetry and aesthetics of the film’s photography which: holds

in Communism in Britain 1920–39
The impact of the South African War on imperial defence
Keith Jeffery

Africa simply by ordering his forces in Turkestan to mobilise. 12 From the 1890s onwards the Indian military authorities periodically estimated the defence requirements of India in the event of Russian aggression. In 1904 Lord Kitchener – who had succeeded Lord Roberts as Commander-in-Chief in South Africa in November 1901 and (no doubt glad to get back to ‘real’ soldiering after

in The South African War reappraised
Abstract only
Naved Bakali
Farid Hafez

. Sayyid , S. ( 2018 ) Islamophobia and the Europeanness of the other Europe , Patterns of Prejudice , 52 ( 5 ): 420–35 . Shibli , N. ( 2021 ). Political geographies of Islamophobia: Chinese ethno-religious racism and structural violence in East Turkestan , Islamophobia Studies Journal , 6 ( 2 ): 150–66 . Tamdgidi , M.H. ( 2012 ). Beyond Islamophobia

in The rise of global Islamophobia in the War on Terror