, broadly speaking, unappealing both
to the gentry who had to do it and to the wider countycommunity who had
to play their parts. It was troublesome and involved a great deal of often dull
work; it produced no tangible benefit to the community; and it was expensive.
It did not fall into that category of the work of local government which arose
organically from society, such as maintaining local order, enforcing the law, or
relieving poverty or hunger. Instead it was imposed from above, and there can
be little doubt that, all things being equal, local communities would
J. R. Maddicott, ‘The countycommunity and
the making of public opinion in fourteenth-century England’,
TRHS , 5th series, 18 (1978), p. 32; Doig, ‘Royal
proclamations’, pp. 259–60.
Gransden, Historical Writing , p.
Dividing the Crown in early colonial New South Wales, 1808–10
1660–1750 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952); Jacqueline
Eales and Andrew Hopper, The CountyCommunity in
Seventeenth-Century England and Wales (Hatfield: University
of Hertforshire Press, 2012).
The ancient group includes the seals of West
Florida (1764), Island of St John (later Prince Edward Island
localities, was primarily an
enabling one. Parliament was expected to delegate powers necessary to achieve
specific aims within a locally defined area; it was expected to bestow legitimacy
and authority upon the exercise of power to groups of individuals chosen by the
urban or countycommunities rather than those appointed by a national executive; it sanctioned the levying of local taxation for locally specific aims. Those in
positions of authority and influence in the regions therefore acquired a wider
range of powers and responsibilities, and developed a wider sense of
Central initiatives and local agency in the English civil war
Workshop Journal, 61
Peacey, ‘Politics, accounts and propaganda’, pp. 71–2.
Jeake quoted in Anthony Fletcher, A CountyCommunity in Peace and War: Sussex
1600–1660 (London, 1975), p. 336; TNA, SP 28/252/34–5 General Accounts
Committee, Letter and Warrant Book; also in SP 28/254, fo. 15.
Hughes, Politics, Society and Civil War, pp. 249–51.
TNA, SP 28/201.
TNA, SP 28/186, Part three; Hughes, Politics, Society and Civil War, pp. 243–6;
SP 28/136. Many working papers for the alphabet books are in SP 28/201.
TNA, SP 28/38/607.
KYLE 9781526147158 PRINT
–1640 (Hassocks: Harvester
Press, 1977), esp. pp. 118–32. J. S. Morrill, The Revolt of the Provinces: Conservatives and Radicals
in the English Civil War, 1630–1650 (London, New York: Allen and Unwin; Barnes & Noble,
1976), esp. pp. 19–51; Anthony Fletcher, Reform in the Provinces:The Government of Stuart England
(New Haven CT, London: Yale University Press, 1986), e.g. p. 368: ‘Localism … mastered
and subsumed by the country gentry for the purposes of government’.
41 Michael J. Bennett, ‘A CountyCommunity: Social Cohesion amongst the Cheshire Gentry,
, 2000), p. 5.
8 A. Hughes, Politics, Society and Civil War in Warwickshire, 1620–1660 (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1987), p. xi.
9 C. Holmes, ‘The countycommunity in Stuart historiography’, Journal of British
Studies, 19:2 (1980), 55.
10 G. L. Hudson, ‘Negotiating for blood money: war widows and the courts in seventeenth-century England’, in J. Kermode and G. Walker (eds), Women, Crime and the
Courts in Early Modern England (London: University College, 1994), pp. 146–69.
11 Ibid., p. 162.
12 D. J. Appleby, ‘Unnecessary persons? Maimed soldiers
Wandering soldiers and the negotiation of parliamentary authority, 1642–51
David J. Appleby
Association in the English
Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974), pp. 39, 168, 169;
A. Fletcher, A CountyCommunity in Peace and War: Sussex, 1600–1660 (London:
Longman, 1975), pp. 341–2; M. Kishlansky, The Rise of the New Model Army
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), pp. 241, 244–5, 247, 249;
C. Carlton, Going to the Wars: The Experience of the British Civil Wars (London:
Routledge, 1992), pp. 196, 225, 235.
4 R. Bennett, ‘War and disorder: policing the soldiery in Civil War Yorkshire’, in
Fissel (ed.), War and Government in Britain, pp
as British and they are as mystified by,
and alienated from, the Northern Protestant as the Southern papist is.148
Others have argued that even in the border counties ‘community relationships
remained strong (and) sectarianism was never allowed to take root’.149 Evidence
suggests that the reality was far more complicated. In fact, the eruption of
violence after 1969 saw the re-emergence of old suspicions and resentments
which produced fear and occasionally violence. Though expression of such
prejudices was widely condemned, they were reminders of an element in
17 For the background, and much of the content, of what follows, see Diarmaid
MacCulloch, ‘Catholic and Puritan in Elizabethan Suffolk: a countycommunity polarises’, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte, 72 (1981): 232–89; MacCulloch, Suffolk and the
Tudors; A. Hassell Smith, County and Court: Government and politics in Norfolk 1558–
1603 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974).
18 Quoted (from Inner Temple Library, MS. Petyt 538/47, fo. 494) in Patrick Collinson,
‘Perne the Turncoat: an Elizabethan reputation’, in Collinson, Elizabethan Essays
(London: Hambledon, 1994