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Tim William Machan

-worshipping Polynesian could (and did) affirm the truth and pre-eminence of Christianity. 1 If travel encouraged self-realisation, it also produced cultural memory. In the Anglo-Scandinavian context in particular, ethnography offered another venue for thinking about these matters. At issue, most broadly, was what the early modern period often designated race – an amalgamation of qualities and categories today distinguished by ethnicity, language, and nationality as well as racial type. Even the Victorians, Peter Mandell has suggested, ‘used a language of race that was

in Northern memories and the English Middle Ages
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Traumatic events and international horror cinema
Linnie Blake

a broader academic project to give voice to the historically silenced. Trauma Studies can thus be seen as a body of theoretical scholarship that addresses itself to cultural memory, to the modes in which traumatic historical events are representationally transmitted in time and space, to the politics of memorialising such events and experiences and to the cultural significance of vicarious modes of witnessing trauma. And as such, it is an entirely apposite discipline through which to read that most traumatic and traumatised of film genres – cinematic horror, a

in The wounds of nations
Ethnic minorities and localities in China’s border encounters with Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam
Victor Konrad and Zhiding Hu

imaginary and narrative both combine and diverge in borderlands where they are appropriated by minorities and charged with new stories to support identity verification and political and economic gain. Hybrid forms result to weave a rich tapestry of borderland interaction and display. When this tapestry is examined carefully, different levels of discourse are evident. Also evident is the fact that border space allows these diverse discourses to coexist, and even to flourish and grow. Significantly, borderlands accommodate a diversity and plurality of cultural memories and

in Border images, border narratives
Vinland as remembered by Icelanders
Simon Halink

retreated to Greenland and Iceland, and ‘Vínland became only a saga ’. 3 However, in Iceland, a saga is hardly ever ‘only’ a saga, or a nice story for entertainment’s sake; saga literature is a vital source of collective identity and national pride. Even if the central plot of the Vinland sagas revolves around a failed attempt to colonise new land, defeat can be transformed into a higher form of moral victory. In this essay, I will explore the various ways in which the story of Vinland has been framed in the cultural memory of Icelanders on both sides of the Atlantic

in From Iceland to the Americas
Past crimes, present memories
Author: Claire Gorrara

French crime fiction and the Second World War explores France's preoccupation with memories of the Second World War through an examination of crime fiction, one of popular culture's most enduring literary forms. The study analyses representations of the war years in a selection of French crime novels from the late 1940s to the 2000s. All the crime novels discussed grapple with the challenges of what it means for generations past and present to live in the shadow of the war: from memories of French resistance and collaboration to Jewish persecution and the legacies of the concentration camps. The book argues that crime fiction offers novel ways for charting the two-way traffic between official discourses and popular reconstructions of such a contested conflict in French cultural memory.

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Auteurism from Assayas to Ozon
Editor: Kate Ince

There have been vigorous debates about the condition and prospects of auteur cinema in France over the last decade, debates that seem mostly to have gone unreported in anglophone criticism of francophone cinema. But these have been paralleled by a revival of international debate about the status of the auteur: in their extended chapter on auteur cinema added to the second edition of Cook's The Cinema Book, Pam Cook and Mieke Bernink observe that this was definitely underway by 1995. This book summarises the development of auteurism as a field up to the 1990s, drawing particularly on Wright Wexman's historical overview. Georges Méliès was the first auteur. Following the advent of structuralism and structuralist approaches to narrative and communication in the mid 1960s, a type of auteurism was born that preserved a focus on authorship. The book presents an account of the development of Olivier Assayas' career, and explores this idea of what one might call 'catastrophe cinema'. Jacques Audiard's work reflects several dominant preoccupations of contemporary French cinema, such as an engagement with realism (the phenomenon of the 'new new wave') and the interrogation of the construction of (cultural) memory. The book then discusses the films of the Dardenne brothers and their documentaries. Michael Haneke's films can be read as a series of polemical correctives to the morally questionable viewing practices. An introduction to Ozon's films that revolve around the centrality of queer desire to his cinema, and the continual performative transformations of identity worked within it, is presented.

Caroline Sturdy Colls and Kevin Simon Colls

When Alderney’s pre-war population returned in December 1945, evidence of occupation still dominated the landscape and clean-up operations continued for years afterwards. In the decades since, the islanders, local government and British government have grappled with this legacy and the issue of forced and slave labour. This chapter focuses on the legacies of the occupation and the impact that this has had on how the sites and stories connected to forced and slave labour have been approached since WW2 at local, national and international level. Beginning with a review of the impact that the ravaged landscape had on Alderney’s returning islanders and vice versa, the chapter charts the ways in which cultural memory and approaches to archaeology and heritage have evolved up to the present day.

in 'Adolf Island'
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Joshua Davies

1 Introduction Memory is the matrix of all human temporal perception. Mary Carruthers, The Book of Memory1 This book is a study of cultural memory in and of the British Middle Ages. It is about ways of knowing the past created by individuals and groups in medieval Britain and how those texts and images have been adapted and appropriated in the modern West. Like the medieval and modern material with which it works, this book’s methodology is associative. It traces connections  –​often explicit, sometimes intuitive  –​across time, place and media to explore the

in Visions and ruins

This book analyses the use of the past and the production of heritage through architectural design in the developmental context of Iran. It is the first of its kind to utilize a multidisciplinary approach in probing the complex relationship between architecture, development, and heritage. It uses established theoretical concepts including notions of globalism, nostalgia, tradition, and authenticity to show that development is a major cause of historical transformations in places such as Iran and its effects must be seen in relation to global political and historical exchanges as well as local specificities. Iran is a pertinent example as it has endured radical cultural and political shifts in the past five decades. Scholars of heritage and architecture will find the cross-disciplinary aspects of the book useful. The premise of the book is that transposed into other contexts, development, as a globalizing project originating in the West, instigates renewed forms of historical consciousness and imaginations of the past. This is particularly evident in architecture where, through design processes, the past produces forms of architectural heritage. But such historic consciousness cannot be reduced to political ideology, while politics is always in the background. The book shows this through chapters focusing on theoretical context, international exchanges made in architectural congresses in the 1970s, housing as the vehicle for everyday heritage, and symbolic public architecture intended to reflect monumental time. The book is written in accessible language to benefit academic researchers and graduate students in the fields of heritage, architecture, and Iranian and Middle Eastern studies.

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Writing American sexual histories
Author: Barry Reay

The archive has assumed a new significance in the history of sex, and this book visits a series of such archives, including the Kinsey Institute’s erotic art; gay masturbatory journals in the New York Public Library; the private archive of an amateur pornographer; and one man’s lifetime photographic dossier on Baltimore hustlers. The subject topics covered are wide-ranging: the art history of homoeroticism; casual sex before hooking-up; transgender; New York queer sex; masturbation; pornography; sex in the city. The duality indicated by the book’s title reflects its themes. It is an experiment in writing an American sexual history that refuses the confines of identity sexuality studies, spanning the spectrum of queer, trans, and the allegedly ‘normal’. What unites this project is a fascination with sex at the margins, refusing the classificatory frameworks of heterosexuality and homosexuality, and demonstrating gender and sexual indecision and flexibility. And the book is also an exploration of the role of the archive in such histories. The sex discussed is located both in the margins of the archives, what has been termed the counterarchive, but also, importantly, in the pockets of recorded desire located in the most traditional and respectable repositories. The sexual histories in this book are those where pornography and sexual research are indistinguishable; where personal obsession becomes tomorrow’s archive. The market is potentially extensive: those interested in American studies, sexuality studies, contemporary history, the history of sex, psychology, anthropology, sociology, gender studies, queer studies, trans studies, pornography studies, visual studies, museum studies, and media studies.