Working-class white women, interracial relationships and colonial ideologies in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Liverpool
cosmopolitan city within which
interracial relationships will be positioned. Secondly, a parallel
contextualisation will be considered through an examination of
historical notions of ‘race’ including pseudo-scientific
race theories and eugenics. Thirdly, the chapter will examine the
conditions within which interracial relationships were facilitated
throughout this period. Finally, the focus will shift to those
promoter of eugenics, biological determinism gained new credibility.
Galton’s own phrase, ‘Nature versus Nurture’, came
to characterise the late Victorian debate on the relationship
between heredity and environment. Strengthened by the new forms of
statistical analysis, scientists applied this reinvigorated
biological determinism to differences of class, gender and race.
The Canadian Mounted Police and the Klondike gold rush
William R. Morrison
idea of eugenics. 1 In its milder version, as displayed during the
Klondike gold rush, it furnished a kind of Canadian nationalism,
based largely on invidious comparisons with American social
institutions. The gold rush also provides a clear illustration of
Canada’s policy towards her northern regions, these internal
‘colonies’, as one historian has called them. 2 This famous
Detection, deviance and disability in Richard Marsh’s Judith Lee stories
frameworks drawing on criminology, eugenics,
science, communications technology and psychical research. However,
the voice of the independent, multilingual jiu-jitsu expert Lee, a cosmopolitan flâneuse equally at home in high society and the slum, disturbs
accepted notions of gender, class, ethnicity, criminality and disability.
The series repeatedly introduces binary oppositions between acceptable
and transgressive femininity, Englishness and otherness, able-bodiedness
and disability, degeneracy and progeneracy, science and the supernatural,
only to challenge and
(the ‘problem family’). Its implications were viewed as medical as well
as moral and, despite the decline of eugenics discourse (which had
emphasised racial deterioration), as a threat to national strength.1
The ‘problem’ of teenage sexuality was profoundly shaped by ideologies of gender. As civil servants commented in 1969 after examining
recent research studies: ‘While anti-social attitudes tend to manifest
themselves in specific offences [in boys], for example wilful damage
to property, in girls these feelings tend to find expression in flouting
United States, and China; but after Germany, Sweden may be said to be one of the countries where ideas on racial hygiene and positive and negative eugenics gained the strongest foothold, both scientifically and politically.
The marriage act of 1915
In this eventful period of cultural and political turbulence, a review of the incest legislation took place. This time the Swedish law-drafting committee worked in close cooperation with the other Nordic countries
Thomas D’haeninck, Jan Vandersmissen, Gita Deneckere, and Christophe Verbruggen
healthcare; social medicine became increasingly entangled with other
reformist movements. The third part deals with the further
development of social hygiene and the rise of eugenics, national
health protection and the improvement policies in the interwar
period. Finally, the fourth part re-evaluates the period after 1960
when national public health systems were strongly questioned, local
This volume offers a series of new essays on the British left – broadly interpreted – during the First World War. Dealing with grassroots case studies of unionism from Bristol to the North East of England, and of high politics in Westminster, these essays probe what changed, and what remained more or less static, in terms of labour relations. For those interested in class, gender, and parliamentary politics or the interplay of ideas between Britain and places such as America, Ireland and Russia, this work has much to offer. From Charlie Chaplin to Ellen Wilkinson, this work paints a broad canvass of British radicalism during the Great War.
Scientific Governance in Britain, 1914-79 provides a ‘big picture’ account of science in modern Britain. It charts the changing contours of science and illuminates its role in governing the nation. The twentieth century saw a dramatic increase in publicly funded research and the number of scientific advisors across government. At the same time science was evoked in the pursuit of the effective and rational management of people and resources – of making policies and achieving Britain’s goals. Spanning fifteen essays, this book examines the connected histories of how science itself was governed, and how it was used in governance. Individually these contributions reveal a breadth of perspectives on the relationship between science and governance. Taken together they connect the many people involved in, and affected by, science in twentieth-century Britain. Essays on the governance of science include topics such as the establishment and functioning of new governmental departments and agencies, as well as the (sometimes uncertain) responses of pre-existing scientific bodies, notably the Royal Society. Operational Research features prominently as the model for later structures. Topics treated under the theme of governance by science include specific elaborations of the sometimes vague-seeming rhetoric of science’s rational fitness as a modus operandi. More concrete ambitions for science are explored in relation to broadcasting, psychology, sociology and education. The essays in this volume combine the latest research on twentieth-century British science with insightful discussion of what it meant to govern – and govern with – science.
human behaviour. In the present ideological climate, this means that biotechnology might help to consolidate
the moral and market fundamentalisms of the Right (Knapp et al., 1996;
As such, this chapter takes issue with two recent interventions by
prominent authors of the Right, Charles Murray and Francis Fukayama.
After the new social democracy
The next section critiques Murray’s position and the chapter then proceeds to argue that in order to prevent the emergence of ‘laissez-faire
eugenics’, we must implement