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Mary A. Procida

, riding and games’ playing were sanctioned and encouraged by their spouses. Anglo-Indian women’s involvement in sports in the Indian empire – in particular, their aptitude for hunting and shooting – reveals the interdependence and interaction of the social construction of gender and the dictates of British imperialism. However, Anglo-Indian women’s use of firearms

in Married to the empire
Perspectives from Jammu and Kashmir, Cyprus and Bosnia-Herzegovin
Elena B. Stavrevska, Sumona DasGupta, Birte Vogel, and Navnita Chadha Behera

compliance 101 criticism towards the presence of foreign military forces in Cyprus and publicly debated the implementation of several EU laws and the EU’s approach to reunifying the island via economic interdependence. The movement clashed with the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus as well, which asked them several times to vacate the Buffer Zone since their activities were ‘not in line with the UN’s regulation for activities in the Buffer Zone’.68 By being more political than their institutionalised counterparts, OBZM could not find any allies in the political spectrum

in Cultures of governance and peace
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Kevin O’Sullivan

media – particularly television – their activities bypassed the state to create a link between peoples across a variety of different countries and continents, and forced governments to live up to newly defined standards of conduct. These ideas of an international society are nothing new, of course, for international relations theorists – or at least those of a constructivist persuasion. Yet their arguments are worth exploring further when writing the diplomatic history of the Cold War. As ideas of ‘interdependence’, ‘transnationalism’ and ‘international regimes’ took

in Ireland, Africa and the end of empire
The Cold War after Stalin
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

had long argued that a federation of states was the only sensible solution to Europe’s problem of recurrent wars. His argument was reflected in Schumann’s proposition to establish a European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). The ECSC would, first, bring under collective control the two key industries in the production of modern weapons systems – coal and steel. Second, integration of these important industries would be followed by integrative spinoffs in other industries and initiate a Continental development towards greater interdependence. 1 Schumann was

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
Jonathan Smyth

paramount, practical politics, even when based on such lofty ideals, were likely to be more opportunistic than moral. There is also no firm evidence that he really believed it would be possible to impose on society what Furet called ‘Robespierre’s absurd principle’,26 an idealised system where there would be transparency and interdependence between history, political action and public morality. The open question remains whether Robespierre consciously believed that the imposition of some recognisably ‘religious’ system would counteract what he saw as the potentially

in Robespierre and the Festival of the Supreme Being
Responsive not strategic

This monograph seeks to examine the motivations for the European Union’s (EU) policy towards the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), the EU’s most important relationship with another regional economic integration organisation. This monograph argues that the dominant explanations in the literature -- balancing the US, global aspirations, being an external federator, long-standing economic and cultural ties, economic interdependence, and the Europeanization of Spanish and Portuguese national foreign policies – fail to adequately explain the EU’s policy. In particular, these accounts tend to infer the EU’s motives from its activity. Drawing extensive primary documents, this monograph argues that the major developments in the relationship -- the 1992 Inter-institutional Agreement and the 1995 Europe Mercosur Inter-regional Framework Cooperation Agreement – were initiated by Mercosur and supported mainly by Spain. This means that rather than the EU pursuing a strategy, as implied by most of the existing literature, the EU was largely responsive.

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European integration as a system of conflict resolution in the Franco-German relationship (1950–63)
Boyka Stefanova

This chapter presents a case study concerning the application of regional integration as a system of conflict resolution in the example of the Franco-German relationship of the 1950s. It traces early attempts to break the cycle of punitive peace between France and Germany, and analyses the meaning of Europeanisation during the 1950s as a strategy of peace-building accomplished through joint policy-making in the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the institutionalisation of a customs union through the European Economic Community (EEC). This chapter also highlights the significance of Europeanisation for domestic political pluralism and for the politicisation of economic interdependence.

in The Europeanisation of conflict resolution
Open Access (free)
Sven Rubenson, Amsalu Aklilu, Shiferaw Bekele, and Samuel Shiferaw 

The documents from 1883 are strongly dominated by correspondence between local rulers along the coast and in Danakil and the representatives of the Italian government. The most important documents are the treaties between Italy and Awsa and Italy and Shewa, clearly revealing the interdependence between the rulers of Shewa and the rulers of the Danakil, the basic issue being secure and free trade routes and Italian hegemony over other European interests. A number of letters from Emperor Yohannis to European rulers show the increasing Ethiopian impatience with continued European support for Egypt after its defeat in the wars of the 1870s, and an interesting letter demonstrates the Emperor’s concern over the growing cooperation between King Minīlik and the Italians.

in Colonial Powers and Ethiopian Frontiers 1880–1884
Kathryn Walls

Thanks to the Incarnation, Una participates in the nature of God. It is in accordance with this that she has a strongly Trinitarian aspect. Her identification with the Trinity is made most obvious through the House of Holiness, which is inhabited by three quasi-divine matrons and an overlapping, generally younger, triad. Una is also identified with the Trinity through her affiliation with the medieval figure of Sapience, as treated in the Horologia Sapientiae of Henry Suso. Una’s three animals suggest Christ as God Incarnate, reflecting the interdependence of the doctrine of the Trinity and the doctrine of the Incarnation of Christ—which are proclaimed, respectively, in the first and second of the Thirty-Nine Articles.

in God’s only daughter
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Derek Schilling

In the narrative cinema, style is often assumed to lie on the side of visible excess. It is the domain of the provocateur, the virtuoso, the formalist, the mannerist. This chapter presents the interdependence of film style and technique in the director's pursuit of cinematographic realism. It explores how sound and image are configured, and to what effect. And what is the production process envisaged from screenplay to shoot. In addressing cinematography, mise en scène, sound design, and music in synoptic fashion, the chapter shows why Rohmer's deceptively prosaic mode of presentation is ultimately so effective in sustaining and critiquing cinematic illusion at one and the same time. The filmmaker's practice runs slightly against the grain of the institutional mode of representation (IMR), prompting viewers to listen and look at the texture of a film and question assumptions about how film language works in its classical and modernist guises.

in Eric Rohmer