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Susan Park

advocacy networks as Keck and Sikkink do (1998: 8–10); this is detailed in chapter 2. IOs refer to intergovernmental organisations and do not include NGOs. Non-state actors refer to NGOs not IOs, as the latter are made up of states. 4 All currency values are in United States dollars. 5 That organisations respond to their environment based on their organisational ‘identity’ is sociologically inspired. The reflexivity of constructivism is often overlooked by rationalists who focus on 3402 World Bank Group:2634Prelims 18 12/11/09 14:56 Page 18 World Bank Group

in World Bank Group interactions with environmentalists
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A plea for politics at the European level
Peter J. Verovšek

member-states like the United Kingdom. I argued that the EU continued to evolve on the community model – not as an intergovernmental organisation or a confederation – primarily because integrationist leaders, whose remembrance of the past led them to believe in the necessity of pooling decision-making powers, pushed the project forward at crucial moments. In chapter 4 , the final section of the explanatory-diagnostic part of the book, I claimed that the EU’s problems at the start of the third millennium – while heightened by the financial, monetary, and political

in Memory and the future of Europe
Nanna Mik-Meyer

focused. Soft power is bound to actors such as states, countries and intergovernmental organisations or – in relation to the topic of this book – welfare workers, citizens and welfare organisations and their abilities to set agendas and convince others to cooperate. Powerful encounters At its core, power has to do with how individuals, alone or collectively, ‘attempt to achieve their objectives and to assist or obstruct others in the achievement of theirs’ (Jenkins 2013: 140). In doing so, individuals then deploy different resources meaningful to the contexts in which

in The power of citizens and professionals in welfare encounters
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Thibaut Raboin

s have tended to leave aside the situation of trans claimants, which is reflected in the corpus considered here. In addition, the specificity of the experience of trans claimants would necessitate a separate comprehensive analysis. Since 2014, a greater acknowledgement of the under-discussion of trans issues in relation to asylum and forced migration has occurred, both among advocates and intergovernmental organisations such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); the latter, for example, calling in its 2015 report for more research and

in Discourses on LGBT asylum in the UK
Irritating nation-state constitutionalism
Gunther Teubner

social responsibility in the areas of work, product quality, the environment and human rights. 25 Global administrative law : This is the most recent candidate for a constitutionalisation of transnational sectors. 26 Today, there are more than 2,000 global regulatory agencies in the form of international and intergovernmental organisations. 27 In contrast to the administrative law of the UN and

in Critical theory and legal autopoiesis
Neil McNaughton

political integration unless the problem of the democratic deficit is tackled. Indeed, by 2002 Britain led the section of the EU which opposes further moves towards federation. 264 Understanding British and European political issues Should the Conservative party regain power, the prospects for closer union will become even more remote. It will require a major shift in public opinion for any British government to support a deeper union. So, for the time being Britain wants the EU to remain an intergovernmental organisation, rather than a supranational one. Having said

in Understanding British and European political issues
Kate Wilkinson Cross
Pefi Kingi

), a regional intergovernmental organisation. In 2018, the PIF affirmed that climate change is the ‘single greatest threat to the livelihoods, security and wellbeing of the peoples of the Pacific’ (Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, 2018a ). This recognised that climate change exacerbates existing sources of insecurity and has a profound impact on the people’s relationship with

in Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship
Christian Kaunert

‘composite, supranational, general European interest’ but also pursues its own institutional interests. Furthermore, it can also act as an intergovernmental organisation due to the fact that members of the College of Commissioners or civil servants from the administrative structures cannot fully independent from external pressure. This confirms the depiction of the Commission as a politico

in European internal security
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European integration as a system of conflict resolution in the Franco-German relationship (1950–63)
Boyka Stefanova

). State policies, however, continued to reflect the principles of distributive settlement. Political outcomes were shaped by diplomatic means. A number of intergovernmental organisations were created in the 1945–49 period on a functional consultative basis. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation in Europe (OEEC) was founded on 16 April 1948 as the institution responsible for administering the Marshall

in The Europeanisation of conflict resolution
Silvia Salvatici

in action. 1 This is how President Franklin Delano Roosevelt addressed the director general of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), Herbert H. Lehman, in November 1944. A leading figure in the Democrat Party and governor of the State of New York from 1933 to 1942, Lehman had been a strong supporter of the New Deal. However, he had not been given the office of director general of the intergovernmental organisation that had to take the necessary aid to the populations hit by the war ‘to start a new life’ just because

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989