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Censorship, the Home Office, and the BBFC
Christine Grandy

connection between politics and pornography has been amply demonstrated, producers and regulators of pornography in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries constructed pornography as a new and vital industry that, on the surface, was removed from the political and social sphere. This seemingly apolitical pornography was also more available due to the same changes in the printing press that ushered in the cheap bestselling novel. Lisa Z. Sigel claims that postcards in particular made visual representations of sexuality affordable and available for the wider public.6 Sigel

in Heroes and happy endings
Tradition and innovation in John’s Confessio theologica
Lauren Mancia

, allowing for more rigorous exegetical instruction. 98 Two of the books, Smaragdus of Saint-Mihiel’s Diadema monastica and Expositio in regular sancti Benedicti , were explicit regulators of monastic life according to the RB. 99 Jean Leclercq states that Smaragdus’s impetus for writing his works on monastic life was the monastic capitulary of 817, formulated at Monte Cassino: ‘Let the abbots scrutinize the Rule , word for word, in order to understand it well, and, with their monks, let them endeavor to practice it.’ 100 One can thus imagine William following this

in Emotional monasticism
Samuel K. Cohn, Jr

members of the college, captains of the Party, a guild councilman, or a regulator. 58 Eighth, all the guild counsellors at this time or their body guard [ compagnio ] may bear arms and may associate with present members of the committee of Eighty and the Signoria. Ninth, the captains of the Guelf Party cannot bar any rector 59 from holding

in Popular protest in late-medieval Europe
Profiteering and money-men
Christine Grandy

dependent upon the laissezfaire approach of its government. Both business and Parliament had been slow to realise the implications of a war economy upon their respective spheres: business in regard to the uninterrupted regular movement of goods and profits, and the government in its contrasting role as a wartime regulator of goods and MUP_Grandy_Heroes.indd 94 20/02/2014 11:23 The shape of villainy 95 prices. That businessmen would be expected to abandon international trade and would potentially lose profit in areas of trade because of an international conflict was

in Heroes and happy endings
Richard Cust and Peter Lake

to an irrecoverable subjection to a multitude, whose election’ was derived ‘(iure divino) immediately from Christ Jesus, who are the carvers of their own government’, and therefore the self-regulators of their own conduct.72 Crucial here was the power of the keys; that is to say, the means of spiritual discipline, up to and including excommunication, that the implementation of the discipline would wrest from the bishops and their courts and vest in the hands of the presbyters and elders of each and every parish. The devotees of the discipline, Aston claimed

in Gentry culture and the politics of religion
Matthew Kempshall

rhetoric, as a contribution to a particular political and ecclesiastical debate in the early 1160s.240 In describing the pope’s role within the Christian community, John was presenting the pope as judge and administrator, as reformer, as leader of the Crusade, as defender of orthodoxy and as regulator of temporal rulers. As such, the Historia Pontificalis needs to be read alongside more prescriptive works by his contemporaries – Bernard of Clairvaux’s De Consideratione, for example, or even Gratian’s Decretum – as an exemplary illustra­tion of how a good pope should act

in Rhetoric and the writing of history, 400 –1500
S. H. Rigby

true friend. All men seek happiness but true happiness is not to be found in earthyly wealth, power or fame or in bodily pleasures. True happiness is to share in the perfect goodness of God, the self-sufficient regulator of the universe. Although it may seem that the wicked flourish while the innocent suffer, in fact, ‘good folk ben alwey strong and myghti, and the schrewes ben feble and desert and

in Chaucer in context