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Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

production to another took place through a process Marx described as a dialectic. Each mode of production contained within it contradictions which would create conflict between social classes and cause its downfall. Consequently each successive stage of human history contained both a dominant class, and one that would overthrow it. In capitalist society Marx anticipated that the proletariat, or working class, would eventually overthrow the bourgeoisie, and initiate another system of productive relations, a fourth epoch of socialism. His grand, overarching evolutionary

in The houses of history
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John M. MacKenzie

had experience of living in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia), where my father was a clerk of works in the Public Works Department (PWD), which was one of the key agencies of the colonies of the British Empire. SOCIAL CLASSES, RACE, AND BUILT AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS Experience of Glasgow and of Northern Rhodesia, together with all subsequent studies, created the conviction that empire was a highly complex and messy affair which endowed as well as endangered other societies (and reciprocally its own). It had the power to inspire as well as to injure, to be constructive as

in The British Empire through buildings
Social networks and the spread of medical information
Alun Withey

, employers and employees, but also even bring together people of such disparate social classes as would normally preclude communications between them. These social networks are vital to our understanding of medical knowledge in Wales, since they explain how information was able to move both up and down the social scale, and also around the geographically intractable terrain of Wales, with apparent ease. Such networks crossed social and geographical boundaries and question previous depictions of Wales as being insular and remote. This chapter explores these networks and

in Physick and the family
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Melodrama and Tory socialism
Deborah Mutch

polarizing worldview, melodramas signify goodness in the suffering of victims, and signify evil in the cruelty of antagonists. … [I]ndividual characters are often the metonymic substitute for economic or social classes. (Anker, 2012: 136) The clash between Diana and Connie as the ‘metonymic substitutes’ for, respectively, the landed aristocracy and the working classes depicts not only the imbalance of power but also the left-wing and melodramatic stereotypes of the aristocracy as ‘bad’ and the working-class as ‘good’. Diana is not simply the villainous aristocrat flexing

in Margaret Harkness
John Cullinan, Seán Lyons, and Brian Nolan

­outcome measures, including parental labour market outcomes, levels of p ­ arental education, household income, social class and economic ­hardship. Given the importance of human capital accumulation for children and throughout the life course, Chapter 6, by Denise Frawley, Joanne Banks and Selina McCoy, discusses resource allocation for students with special educational needs and disabilities. The aim is to provide empirical evidence to inform how special educational needs can be best resourced in Ireland. The subsequent two chapters continue with the life cycle theme

in The economics of disability
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Jonathon Shears

Great Exhibition, 1851: A sourcebook are students and researchers new to the topic and particularly those who want to teach the subject without resorting to hours of trawling through primary texts to produce course material. So the book is primarily conceived as a teaching aid, but it also offers numerous departure points for researchers in the history of the Exhibition, and material culture more generally, and those working on specific issues such as British imperialism, social class and the representation of gender politics in the Victorian period. To a great degree

in The Great Exhibition, 1851
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Dramaturge and mauvais esprit
Sarah Leahy and Isabelle Vanderschelden

after screenwriters of the classical period, described by Pierre Billard ( 1995 : 256) as the ‘dramaturge’ of French cinema (in contrast to Prévert, the poet). He played a major role in shaping the classic French cinema, influencing the stories that were told and their recurring preoccupations. These include themes that are indelibly associated with 1930s French cinema, such as social class

in Screenwriters in French cinema
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Folklore, memory, and the volunteers of 1926
Rachelle Hope Saltzman

published and unpublished diaries from the period, confirm the accuracy of those memories, which differ in perspective depending on social class, but are remarkably consistent in terms of the type of information and detail they provide.17 They represent a form that scholars often refer to as contested narratives: those stories that subvert and run counter to the dominant discourse (Portelli, 1991; Bodnar, 1992; Radner et al., 1993; Bennett, 1994; Saltzman, 1994a and 1994b; Noyes et al., 1995; Tuleja, 1997; Sawin, 2004; Shuman, 2005). Such recollections interrupt to

in A lark for the sake of their country
The problem of tuberculosis and its threat to nurses’ health, 1880–1950
Debbie Palmer

commentators considered that the shortage was due to the decline in nursing’s ability to attract well-­educated, and hence almost inevitably, middle-­class recruits.21 Assumptions that nursing was losing ground to other middle-­class professions such as teaching and social work have been challenged by recent research suggesting that competition was coming from ‘low-­level white collar posts in the commercial sector – clerks, typists and shop assistants’.22 What was said about education, Brian Abel-­Smith argues, was really a polite way of making statements about social class

in Who cared for the carers?
Sexuality, labour and poor white women in North Carolina
Cecily Jones

the society. By the mid-eighteenth century, North Carolina had evolved into a patriarchal hierarchical social order founded on distinctions of race, gender and social class. Yet punitive legislation did not summarily end casual or permanent sexual unions between the various racial and cultural groups. That interracial marriages continued unabated is borne out by the passing of successive legislation in

in Engendering whiteness