chap 2 22/3/04 12:12 pm Page 50 2 The most perfect state: French clerical reformers and episcopal status As a general council of the church, Trent offered a framework within which a resurgent catholicism could take shape. To a man, its delegates took it for granted that the clergy would lead the laity, and that bishops would supervise and govern all the faithful. While the conciliar decrees were designed to respond, therefore, to the specific abuses and inadequacies of contemporary religion, they drew equally on what were assumed to be eternally applicable
MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 07/18/2013, SPi 3 Church and state In the second half of the nineteenth century, Europe experienced intense antagonism between secular and ecclesiastical forces. In Germany, these conflicts peaked with the Kulturkampf of the 1870s; in Italy, they were exemplified by the ‘Rome question’ and the Papacy’s hostility towards the liberal state.1 In France, the legitimacy of the Third Republic was initially contested by an alliance of monarchists and Catholics. Spurred on by Cardinal Lavigerie in 1890, some French Catholics adopted a policy
Introduction Human reproduction has been discussed by experts and policymakers in Czechoslovakia since its foundation as an independent state in 1918. Despite the continuity of policy and expert discourse (Rákosník and Šustrová 2016 ), the period following 1948, when the Communist Party became the leading party, differed from the previous era. After the Second World War and the expulsion of ethnic Germans from Czechoslovakia in 1945 and 1946, Czechoslovakia's total population decreased by more than three million. In this
contradictory figure … caught up and influenced by the socio-political historical context of segregationist and later apartheid South Africa’; despite his best efforts, the medical school he headed was deeply embedded in the racist norms of the white South African state. 13 Nor does he fit comfortably within either a radical or a conservative paradigm of South African politics. Thus, in 1974, at the very time
's own ideas regarding adaptations, this chapter will use the GSLI productions as case studies to analyse the specific challenges of adapting his prose for the stage. It will argue that, as in the original text of How It Is , there is no ‘last state last version’ (Beckett, 2009 : 3), no ‘resting place’ ( 2009 : 36) that can or should be achieved in adaptation. Adaptation, performance and intermediality As Corinne Lhermitte notes in her historical overview of adaptation, it was originally seen as a creative act. The term ‘was
The role of national machineries, as a way to promote the status of women, acquired international relevance during the World Conference on the International Women's Year, in Mexico City in 1975. This book reflects Division for the Advancement of Women's (DAW) long-standing interest in the area of national machineries, bringing together the experiences, research and insights of experts. The first part of the book sets out the major issues facing national machineries at the conceptual level. It reflects upon five aspects of democratization: devolution or decentralization; the role of political parties; monitoring and auditing systems; and the importance of increasing the presence of women within institutions of the state and government. The second part is a comparative analysis and sets out the major issues facing national machineries at the political level. A combination of factors, including civil society, state bodies and political actors, need to come together for national machineries to function effectively in the interest of gender equality. Next comes the 'lessons learned' by national machineries in mainstreaming gender. National machineries should have an achievable agenda, an important part of which must be 'a re-definition of gender issues. The third part contains case studies that build upon the specific experiences of national machineries in different countries. The successful experience of Nordic countries in gender mainstreaming is also discussed.
This book challenges the myths surrounding the Irish Free Constitution by analysing the document in its context, by looking at how the Constitution was drafted and elucidating the true nature of the document. It examines the reasons why the Constitution did not function as anticipated and investigates whether the failures of the document can be attributed to errors of judgment in the drafting process or to subsequent events and treatment of the document.
As well as giving a comprehensive account of the drafting stages and an analysis of the three alternative drafts for the first time, the book considers the intellectual influences behind the Constitution and the central themes of the document.
This work constitutes a new look at this historic document through a legal lens and the analysis benefits from the advantage of hindsight as well as the archival material now available.
Given the fact that the current Constitution substantially reproduces much of the 1922 text, the work will be of interest to modern constitutional scholars as well as legal historians and anyone with an interest in the period surrounding the creation of the Irish State.
From British rule the independent Irish state inherited an effectively denominational system of university education and a complementary set of science and arts institutions. Under independent rule denominational influence increased and resource starvation prevailed until the end of the 1950s. Then, as the formation of human capital, education began to be treated as an input into economic growth and American initiatives stimulated new research activity. These changes played a vital role in the rebalancing of power between the Catholic Church and the state. Social science, where the Catholic Church had been a monopoly provider, supplies a dramatic case study of the interlinking of this power shift with the process of knowledge generation.
Primitive state-building State-building is the effort of rulers to institutionalise state structures capable of absorbing expanding political mobilisation and controlling territory corresponding to an identity community. In the Middle East, the flaws built into the process from its origins have afflicted the states with enduring legitimacy deficits (Hudson 1977). Because imperialism drew boundaries that haphazardly corresponded to identity, installed client elites in them and created the power machineries of the new
returns, veiled Syrian wife in hand, to his parents’ farm in Tunis. A few days later, his father, Mohamed, denounces the radicalized son to the police ( The Economist , 2018 ; Joobeur, 2018 ). The plot of this short film by Meryam Joobeur describes a possible example of non-state counter-terrorism. But the film, which is called Brotherhood , can also be considered an example of