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Matthew Kempshall

. 481: ut pictura poesis (see page 359); cf. M. Carruthers, The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture (Cambridge, 1990), p. 230. For painting as living writing or living narrative, see Bede, De Templo, trans. S. Connolly, On the Temple (Liverpool, 1995), II, p. 91. According to Gregory the Great, pictures were placed in churches so that those who could not read might at least read by seeing on the walls what they were unable to read in books: Gregory the Great, Letters, trans. J.R.C. Martyn (Toronto, 2004), Ep.XI.10. pp. 745–6, cf. Ep.IX.209, p. 674

in Rhetoric and the writing of history, 400 –1500
Matthew Kempshall

to abstraction, because an audience is moved more sharply by seeing action with their own eyes than by simply hearing a narrative.36 It is this visual quality which makes poetry comparable to painting and sculpture (ut pictura poesis). The social and political utility of poetry should therefore not be underestimated. According to Horace, in fact, it tames wild men, inscribes laws, instils virtue and sets out the path of life (via vitae).37 The impact of such claims 34  Institutio Oratoria, X.5.4, p. 115. 35  Horace, Ars Poetica, trans. H.R. Fairclough (Loeb, 1929

in Rhetoric and the writing of history, 400 –1500
Abstract only
Kenneth Borris

Recontextualizing Spenser’s 1579 Shepheardes Calender according to book history, the author analyzes its characteristics as a material text. The circumstances of its publication and of the stationer involved, Hugh Singleton, indicate that it was probably subsidized by the Earl of Leicester. The book’s complex design was deeply innovative, and the poet himself appears to have conceived its most unusual features, including its incorporation of a newly devised illustrative program and a commentary, both atypical for a first edition of imaginative fiction or poetry. His Calender samples and reinterprets diverse literary and nonliterary forms and discourses, ranging from humanist eclogues and emblem books to various calendars and popular almanacs, as well as their norms of print. The bibliographical format, paper, typography, and decoration, and the choice, arrangement, and sequence of the various textual parts recall English and continental precedents for printing eclogues and other kinds of books, as well as commentaries, and yet the book introduces various important changes. The twelve original woodcuts were probably devised according to Spenser’s own designs, and the author reveals elaborate symbolism in several selected pictures to show that the 1579 Calender’s illustrations profoundly interact with its poetry. Shedding much new light on its genesis and contents, including its poetics, politics, and satire of the queen’s prospective marriage to the duc d’Anjou, this comprehensive inquiry into the Calender’s first materialization as a book provides invaluable means to advance knowledge of Spenser’s first major poem, his poetic development, and his early reception.

in Edmund Spenser’s Shepheardes Calender (1579)