aqueduct, grant for themselves and their successors that the religious may freely bring the said aqueduct beneath the wall and the ground of the town as far as their buildings without impediment from the mayor and community … and that they may inspect, repair or renew the aqueduct without contradiction … unless by chance the town should be in danger on account of war … And the said prior and convent will
the scholars, armed in the manner of war, and beat and assaulted the mayor, bailiffs and sergeants, and wounded some of them, whereby there is despair of their lives, and then they slew a child of about fourteen years and threatened to set the town on fire. And further, the next morning, when the mayor, bailiffs and good folk of the town were gone to Woodstock to complain to the king of the said injuries, the said
eventually overturned the earlier judgement against her on 7 July 1456. 5 The fact that Joan’s captors were Burgundian and that her judges were French theologians and canon lawyers highlights the danger of assuming that this was merely a war between France and England. It is true that the two monarchies had been at war for centuries before Henry V (1413–22) and his
This book is the first English translation of one of the most significant chronicles of the middle ages. Written in Bamberg at the end of the eleventh century, Frutolf of Michelsberg's Chronicle offers a lively and vivid account of the great struggle between the German emperors and the papacy known today as the Investiture Contest. Frutolf's Chronicle has numerous continuations written in the first quarter of the twelfth century. Together with that, Frutolf's Chronicle offers an engaging and accessible snapshot of how medieval people reacted to a conflict that led to civil war in Germany and Italy, and fundamentally altered the relationship of church and state in Western society.
This book collects together for the first time in English the major documents relating to the life and contemporary reputation of Joan of Arc. Also known as La Pucelle, she led a French Army against the English in 1429, arguably turning the course of the war in favour of the French king Charles VII. The story of Joan of Arc has continued to elicit an extraordinary range of reactions throughout almost six centuries since her death. Her story ended tragically in 1431 when she was put on trial for heresy and sorcery by an ecclesiastical court and was burned at the stake. The book shows how the trial, which was organised by her enemies, provides an important window into late medieval attitudes towards religion and gender. Joan was effectively persecuted by the established Church for her supposedly non-conformist views on spirituality and the role of women. She was ransomed by her captors to their English allies who in turn handed her over to the Church to be tried and finally executed for heresy at Rouen on 30 May 1431. This slur against her reputation would remain until her friends and acquaintances gave evidence before a Nullification trial that eventually overturned the earlier judgement against her on 7 July 1456. The textual records of the Nullification trial also present problems for modern scholars, parallel to those for the original Rouen trial.
father of four legitimate children; he had considerable experience in war, home politics and international affairs; and, through his first marriage to Blanche, heiress of Henry of Lancaster, he had become the king’s wealthiest subject. Finally, and most importantly, all the evidence suggested that Gaunt had enormous respect for, and loyalty to, the English crown, whoever was king. Against these advantages
of the princes nor the act of surrender that he had willingly performed had been of any benefit to him, he was incited by his indignation on this account and by disgust at his own poverty to begin the war afresh. 55 Among the other disasters that he inflicted on the State, he burned down the royal palace in Nymwegen, a building of marvellous and incomparable beauty; he captured the city of Verdun
neighbours in Aragon, Navarre and Portugal, amounted to nothing less than a deflection from the true destiny God had prepared for him (ii, 19–20): to make war on ‘that abominable people’, as the Muslims of al-Andalus are dubbed (ii, 7). At the very heart of the CAI lies a deepfelt sense of revenge (i, 33, 42). Central to the ‘reconquest’ ideal was the widely-articulated belief
] and a sword with the point upright, supporting a crown. 2 In such a state, she set out to lead men-at-arms, and to command armies and great companies, in order to commit and to carry out inhuman cruelties, shedding human blood, stirring up sedition and unrest among the people, inciting them to perjuries and dangerous rebellions, 3 superstitions and false beliefs, disturbing all true peace and renewing mortal war. [She did
studies of the economy of France in the 1960s, views of the Jacquerie changed. First, Luce read the documents with a sympathetic eye towards the peasantry, emphasising the contexts of war, terror, and destruction to the countryside by the English routiers , gangs of brigands, and above all else, ‘the decadence of French chivalry’. The nobles’ loss of military prestige, their failure to protect the