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Fichte, Hölderlin and Novalis
Andrew Bowie

theory to be saying something radically new should, then, be tempered by the evidence from Novalis and others that, from the very earliest stages of modern philosophy, the subject does not necessarily occupy the position of sovereign. I want here to give a brief account, partly based on the socalled ‘Fichte-Studies’ (FS) (1795–96), of Novalis’s reflections upon subjectivity. These reflections, which only appeared in a philologically acceptable edition in the 1960s,9 again lead in the direction of aesthetics. Before considering the reflections it is worth citing one of

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
On mediated unity and overarching legal-political form
Darrow Schecter

). Claus Offe revisits his own position in the debates on ‘late capitalism’ of the 1960s and 1970s in ‘Erneute Lektüre:  Die Strukturprobleme nach 33 Jahren’, in Strukturprobleme des kapitalistischen Staates:  Aufsätze zur politischen Soziologie, ed. Jens Borchert and Stephan Lessenich (Frankfurt: Campus-​Verlag, revised new edn, 2006), pp. 181–​96. 26 It may be somewhat misleading to invoke a general concept of reason to explain what happens in comprehensively differentiated fields such as science, art, law, economics, politics, education, health, and sport. From a

in Critical theory and sociological theory
Abstract only
Philosophy, theology, and French feminism
Sal Renshaw

essential framework through which to make sense of what I am claiming is the reemergence of a notion of abundant divine love in a most unlikely place, the work of a French feminist, poetico-philosopher. More about the feminist aspect of this conversation shortly. French ‘feminist’ love 48 In the French philosophical, psychoanalytic, and literary scholarship that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s, the problematics of difference became a pivotal concern. The antecedents of this interest are to be found initially in Nietzsche’s critique of the logic of identity, wherein it

in The subject of love
Abstract only
Steven Earnshaw

philosophy was appropriated by popular culture after the Second World War, is that it says people are free to do whatever they want. This indeed does sound like a hedonist’s charter, the 1960s’ countercultural ‘turn on, tune in, drop out’. The element that is missing in this version of freedom, however, is Existentialism’s emphasis on responsibility for the self, such that simply following sensual urges with no concern for anything or anybody else cannot be deemed to indicate a self wholly engaged with existence. Hedonism is not a goal of Existentialism, even if it might

in The Existential drinker
Abstract only
Allyn Fives

, but on his own estimate of the real needs of the persons appearing before him and of society as a whole’ (Shklar 1964c , pp. 8–9). When confronted with poverty and racial inequality (as Shklar herself was in 1960s America) there is a moral requirement to do something for the worst off, even if this means doing something wrong. The wrong done is not just to break what are understood to be the rules of justice (to violate people's long-standing, legitimate expectations). There is also the wrong done to those treated paternalistically in order to ensure the

in Judith Shklar and the liberalism of fear
Stephen Hobden

and Otto Kirchheimer) also played a significant role during the Second World War, providing research and analysis for the US Office of Strategic Services (Laudani, 2013 ). Following the end of the Second World War, the institute relocated to Frankfurt, though some members remained in the US – possibly the most famous being Herbert Marcuse. Marcuse, who wrote several influential books, most notably One Dimensional Man ( 1964 ) , became a central figure in the student protest movements of the 1960s. He taught at Columbia, Harvard, Brandeis and the University of

in Critical theory and international relations
Why are things ‘this way’, and not ‘that way’?
Stephen Hobden

The real question is not to know why people rebel, but why they don't rebel (Wilhelm Reich, quoted in Gros, 2020 : 1) Are we insane? Writing in the 1960s, Robert Kennedy observed that a visitor from outer space, seeing the social arrangements on Planet Earth and noting the vast amounts spent on weapons of destruction and the high levels of inequality, would question the sanity of humanity

in Critical theory and international relations