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Examples from late Ottoman-era Palestine and the late British Mandate
Yossi Katz and Liora Bigon

Since the early twentieth century, much attention has been paid to Ebenezer Howard’s well-known book Garden Cities of To-Morrow . The aim of this chapter is to examine the reception of Howard’s widely disseminated ideas in early twentieth-century Palestine and their influence on Ottoman-era urban development (up to 1917), particularly in Tel

in Garden cities and colonial planning
Fabian Graham

/ 仙 ) and a perfected being ( zhenren / 真人 ), each rank attainable through the gaining of merit by virtuous actions, or via ritual assistance from the human realms (Kohn, 2001 ). Immortality in the afterlife had thus become bureaucratised. The first major development in Taoism from which illustrated medieval morality tracts would later spring, was the introduction of the Buddhist doctrine of karmic retribution and “Torture chambers for the dead” (Kohn, 2009 : 91). These were first incorporated by the Lingbao school of Taoism in the

in Voices from the Underworld
The politics of conflict and the producer-oriented policy response
Shizuka Oshitani

5 Policy developments in Japan on global warming: the politics of conflict and the producer-oriented policy response Japan contributes only about 5 per cent of the world’s total carbon dioxide emissions, but this is the fourth highest in the world, following that of the USA (around 25 per cent), Russia (7 per cent) and China (14 per cent). Although Japanese effort to reduce its emissions can make only a marginal difference, it bears an important responsibility in taking part in the world’s effort to tackle global warming. Carbon dioxide accounts for about 90 per

in Global warming policy in Japan and Britain
Bill Jones

right to help determine how they were governed, rather than by a hereditary monarchy or by religious ideas, which many now regarded with scepticism. Developments in the nineteenth century 1801, Ireland England had conquered Ireland by the end of the thirteenth century and English nobles proceeded to rule as ‘absentee landlords’ for the most part. English settlers were deliberately ‘planted’ in Ireland, with more marked success in the north. Protestantism, however, was not accepted by the Catholic country. Catholics were discriminated against and denied civil

in British politics today
Sabine Clarke

exactly was knowledge expected to move from the laboratory and spur development? This chapter will examine the relationship between scientific investigation and colonial development that was embodied in the new arrangements for colonial research that were created in fields such as sugar chemistry during the first half of the 1940s. The late colonial period saw an unprecedented expansion in scientific research across the Colonial Empire and in British universities, funded through the Research Fund of the 1940 CDW Act and its successors. The new

in Science at the end of empire
Becky Taylor

7 State developments and Travellers’ responses, 1968–2000 Part II showed how the 1960s was a time of crisis and change for Travellers. The shortage of stopping places was no longer masked by increased mobility through motorisation, while tighter controls on the siting of caravans after 1960 restricted Travellers’ access to privately owned permanent sites. Added to the changed spatial environment was settled society’s perception of Travellers as social failures, and that their lifestyle was inappropriate in late twentiethcentury Britain. At the same time, there

in A minority and the state
Robert Andersen and Jocelyn A. J. Evans

11 Contemporary developments in political space in France Robert Andersen and Jocelyn A. J. Evans System context Contemporary developments in political space Introduction The emphasis of the book thus far has been on individual parties and coalitions. Nonetheless, the demand side of the equation also provides an important context to party success because it helps define the political space in which parties must compete for voters. In this chapter, then, we focus on French political space over the last fifteen years as defined by the socio-demographic and

in The French party system
Martin Atherton

3 The developmenT of deaf clubs in briTain The deaf community could not have come into existence without shared locations where socially isolated deaf people could gather and develop relationships based on common experiences and characteristics. As the previous chapter illustrated, deaf clubs have long been seen as the hub of deaf community life but little has been previously known about how or why they emerged other than that these deaf clubs arose from a number of local voluntary organisations set up to assist deaf people in their daily lives. In this chapter

in Deafness, community and culture in Britain
Richard Dunphy and Luke March

(Bisky, 2010 ). Given the fact that the EL's electoral activity focuses on elections to the European Parliament – of which there have so far been three since the EL's foundation: in 2004, 2009 and 2014 – it seems sensible to examine policy evolution against the backdrop of the manifestos or platforms agreed for those elections, supplemented by other important policy declarations emanating from EL Congresses. In this chapter, we examine policy development within the EL in some detail, always bearing in mind the extent to which policy

in The European Left Party
Looking for Typological Treasure with William Jones of Nayland and E. B. Pusey
George Westhaver

This article compares the typological exegesis promoted by E. B. Pusey (1800–82) and his colleagues John Henry Newman and John Keble with that of their eighteenth-century Hutchinsonian predecessor William Jones of Nayland (1726–1800). Building on Peter Nockles’s argument that Jones’s emphasis on the figurative character of biblical language foreshadows the Tractarian application of the sacramental principle to exegesis, this article shows how this common approach differs from the more cautious one displayed by the High Church luminaries William Van Mildert and Herbert Marsh. At the same time, both Pusey’s criticism of the mainstream apologetics of his day and his more explicit application of the doctrine of the Incarnation to exegesis resulted in bolder interpretations and a greater emphasis on the necessity of figurative readings (of both the Bible and the natural world) than Jones generally proposed. A shared appreciation of the principle of reserve may explain both these differences and the Tractarian emphasis on a patristic, rather than a Hutchinsonian, inspiration for their approach.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library