that the decision provoked less rebellion. Unsurprisingly, such processes have increased tensions with unions, particularly in countries outside of the core of the Eurozone, and is one of the key forces which drives unions and social-democratic parties apart. It is unclear whether such a separation is happening generally, as literature is ambivalent on this question (Allern and Bale, 2017 ), yet results suggest that the nature of contemporary EU economicgovernance is one driver of such a process.
Second, and related to the first point
Bank’s capital funding
(through project bonds) to finance infrastructure development.
4 The completion of the long-discussed model for economicgovernance. This
would require institutional reform to manage such periods of instability as
the EU was currently witnessing, and would inevitably entail the transfer of
further competences to the central institutions of the EU, including, in all
likelihood, the creation of a permanent European Minister for Finance, and
also the unification of taxation regimes.4
The fourth matter was crucial. In their efforts so far, the EU
Peter John, Sarah Cotterill, Alice Moseley, Liz Richardson, Graham Smith, Gerry Stoker, and Corinne Wales
Trust, interested in increasing electoral turnout. The letters advised recipients that we would be contacting them to discuss voting and provided contact details to enable recipients to register any concerns.
The door-to-door canvassing was coordinated by the Institute for Political and EconomicGovernance, a University of Manchester research institute. The canvassers were predominantly postgraduate students who were enthusiastic about raising electoral turnout, had a good knowledge of the research topic, and had an interest in the objectives of the project
campaign focused on the Chancellor as an epitome of caution and common sense. ‘We had four good years’ she remarked in the aftermath of her victory. No other eurozone leader could dare to make such a claim in 2013 and it showed how introspective the mood in Germany had become. The long election campaign had delayed key decisions on the extent to which Europe would be subject to economicgovernance. Complicated negotiations between the CDU and potential coalition partners stretched ahead which threatened to put back the timetable for a proposed banking union towards 2016
of global economicgovernance (World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, World Bank) to achieve these goals, and we support fair trade, more aid, debt cancellation and the campaign to Make Poverty History. Development can bring growth in life-expectancy and in the enjoyment of life, easing burdensome labour and shortening the working day. It can bring freedom to youth, possibilities of exploration to those of middle years, and security to old age. It enlarges horizons and the opportunities for travel, and helps make strangers into friends. Global
may be driven at the domestic level and may
reflect the type of developments in other European states. Europeanisation
may, then, be a ‘messy process’ with adaptational pressures coming from many
different directions (domestic, European and global). As Dyson notes, ‘In
explaining particular changes to domestic economicgovernance or policies it
is difficult to disentangle Europeanisation from other processes – not just global
but also domestic’ (Dyson, 2007: 291).
It is argued that domestic economic and political considerations played a
considerable part in shaping
; Westlake 1999).
What can also be extracted from the more recent literature on EMU is
the concern about the relative weight of the different EMU institutions in
the wider economicgovernance set-up. The orientation of EMU towards
price stability and the powerful role of the ECB as a sanctioning factor in
the decision-making process (Howarth and Loedel 2002) figure uppermost in the research agenda of scholars working in the field. The
provisions of the SGP are widely seen as a straightjacket, which ties the
hands of economic policy-makers. The pact is associated with an
Single Market (including the customs union) to EU membership, which requires specific legal and budgetary commitments. French concerns revolve around fears that Britain will seek a competitive advantage post-Brexit through lowering taxation and cutting labor standards. Both France and Germany see themselves as custodians of the European project. Though they have different views about economicgovernance going forward, they understand the historical role of the Single Market as the underlying foundation for the process of unifying Europe.
Given the Franco
number of EU staff working in Pillar IV in subsequent years and the
later involvement of EAR and the World Bank in providing technical
assistance, USAID continued to be a major donor in this field. Between
1999 and 2010, six successive multi-year economicgovernance projects
were implemented, at a total cost of $104.5 million. 111 Not all these
funds were used for developing government institutions, however. Because
(accessed 12 January 2017).
DAR ( 2015 ) Diário da Assembleia da República . I Série’, n.° 4, 11 November, 32.
EC (European Commission) ( 2016a ) ‘ Economic and social affairs: policy and surveillance ’, Portugal.