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Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

Different categories of civilians face different threats in different contexts and may be characterised by different vulnerabilities. For example, land activists have been particularly targeted in Colombia, and women are at greater risk of sexual violence than men in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Within the category of humanitarian staff, different individual profiles are exposed to different levels of risk according to, inter alia, age, ethnicity, gender

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet, Sarah Chynoweth, Sarah Martin, Chen Reis, Henri Myrttinen, Philipp Schulz, Lewis Turner, and David Duriesmith

sexualities, gender identities, and gender expressions, and differentiations along lines of class, race, ethnicity, caste, nationality and ability, among others. To provide services to ‘men’ or ‘men and boys’ as if they were a monolithic category would be to repeat the mistakes that are often made in the provision of ‘women-friendly’ services, which in practice are often ‘straight and cisgender women-friendly’ ( Jolly, 2011 ; e.g. see Chynoweth, 2019b : 63). Trans women, trans

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Emmanuelle Strub

Congo), with all of the team members – from the head of mission to support staff. I wanted to make sure the teams had a shared view of the context and of the risks taken by the organisation and by each of them, according to their individual profile (gender, nationality, ethnicity and position in the organisation). The workshops also helped develop a common language when talking about threat, vulnerability and risk, and created a space for the staff to share

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Congolese Experience
Justine Brabant

or region they are unfamiliar with are previous articles on the subject by their media outlet. The same Le Monde journalist explained how he would gather information before leaving on assignment: Even if it was an emergency, we would ask the archives to prepare a file. (...) I would ask the archives to prepare – it might take an hour – as complete a file as possible: the longest articles we had done, a sheet with most recent population/ethnicity

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sean Healy and Victoria Russell

‘Mass deportations and ethnic cleansing is morally justified to counter this, and these bleeding heart NGO’s [ sic ] will be wholly responsible.’ Then, a second video, ‘La verità sui MIGRANTI’ ( Donadel, 2017 ), was uploaded to YouTube in March 2017 by a 23-year-old Italian right-wing activist and vlogger Luca Donadel. It used a similar methodology as the earlier Gefira video, including tracing the routes of rescue vessels on a map from close to Libya

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Megan Daigle, Sarah Martin, and Henri Myrttinen

been shot while deployed – one who was sleeping with a married woman, and another who had favoured one ethnic group over another in his work. ‘The danger wasn’t that ,’ he said, miming a military stance and cocking a rifle. ‘It was human. It’s more about navigating the social and political terrain.’ 31 Another told us: I worked in Iran and had to wear a headscarf there …. My scarf kept slipping and I was put under house arrest by the police because I

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial Refugee Woman
Annika Bergman Rosamond and Catia Gregoratti

Kenya, the Maasai tribes are known for handcrafting their beaded jewelry – colorful necklaces, bracelets and pendants – to maintain their pastoral lifestyle and in Ghana’s Akan ethnic group, they handcraft Kente, a type of silk and cotton fabric made of interwoven cloth strips, now known around the world’ ( Rigou, 2018 ). Hence, the main problem representation of RefuSHE is women’s positioning within displacement and structural

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Migration, ethnicity and association, 1730s–1950s

From the early eighteenth century, a vibrant English associational culture emerged that was, by many measures, ethnic in character. English ethnic organisations spread across North America from east to west, and from north to south, later becoming a truly global phenomenon when reaching Australasia in the later nineteenth century. This books charts the nature, extent and character of these developments. It explores the main activities of English ethnic societies, including their charitable work; collective mutual aid; their national celebration; their expressions of imperial and monarchical devotion; and the extent to which they evinced transnational communication with the homeland and with English immigrants in other territories. The English demonstrated and English people abroad demonstrated and experienced competitive and sometimes conflictual ethnic character, and so the discussion also uncovers aspects of enmity towards an Irish immigrant community, especially in the US, whose increasingly political sense of community brought them into bitter dispute with English immigrants whom they soon outnumbered. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the extent of English ethnic associational culture in North America was such that it resonated within England herself, resulting in the formation of a central organization designed to coordinate the promotion of English culture. This was the Royal Society of St George. Ultimately, the book documents that the English expressed their identity through processes of associating, mutualism and self-expression that were, by any measure, both ethnic and diasporic in character. The English Diaspora is based on a very large amount of untapped primary materials from archives in the United States, Canada, and the UK relating to specific locations such as New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Toronto, Ottawa, and Kingston, and London. Thousands of newspaper articles have been trawled. Several long runs of English associational periodicals have been garnered and utilized. Comparative and transnational perspectives beyond the US and Canada are enabled by the discovery of manuscript materials and periodicals relating to the Royal Society of St George.

Postsocialist, post-conflict, postcolonial?
Author: Catherine Baker

This book explains theoretical work in postcolonial and postsocialist studies to offer a novel and distinctive insight into how Yugoslavia is configured by, and through, race. It presents the history of how ideas of racialised difference have been translated globally in Yugoslavia. The book provides a discussion on the critical race scholarship, global historical sociologies of 'race in translation' and south-east European cultural critique to show that the Yugoslav region is deeply embedded in global formations of race. It considers the geopolitical imagination of popular culture; the history of ethnicity; and transnational formations of race before and during state socialism, including the Non-Aligned Movement. The book also considers the post-Yugoslav discourses of security, migration, terrorism and international intervention, including the War on Terror and the refugee crisis. It elaborates how often-neglected aspects of the history of nationhood and migration reveal connections that tie the region into the global history of race. The book also explains the linkage between ethnic exclusivism and territory in the ethnopolitical logic of the Bosnian conflict and in the internationally mediated peace agreements that enshrined it: 'apartheid cartography'. Race and whiteness remained perceptible in post-war Bosnian identity discourses as new, open-ended forms of post-conflict international intervention developed.

Open Access (free)
Cultural identity and change in the Atlantic archipelago

The concept of 'margins' denotes geographical, economic, demographic, cultural and political positioning in relation to a perceived centre. This book aims to question the term 'marginal' itself, to hear the voices talking 'across' borders and not only to or through an English centre. The first part of the book examines debates on the political and poetic choice of language, drawing attention to significant differences between the Irish and Scottish strategies. It includes a discussion of the complicated dynamic of woman and nation by Aileen Christianson, which explores the work of twentieth-century Scottish and Irish women writers. The book also explores masculinities in both English and Scottish writing from Berthold Schoene, which deploys sexual difference as a means of testing postcolonial theorizing. A different perspective on the notion of marginality is offered by addressing 'Englishness' in relation to 'migrant' writing in prose concerned with India and England after Independence. The second part of the book focuses on a wide range of new poetry to question simplified margin/centre relations. It discusses a historicising perspective on the work of cultural studies and its responses to the relationship between ethnicity and second-generation Irish musicians from Sean Campbell. The comparison of contemporary Irish and Scottish fiction which identifies similarities and differences in recent developments is also considered. In each instance the writers take on the task of examining and assessing points of connection and diversity across a particular body of work, while moving away from contrasts which focus on an English 'norm'.