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Mark Olssen

is a criticism made by Hegel ( 1942 : §135). If a bank lends you money on the understanding that you will pay it back by a certain time, the Kantian moral is that such obligations must be honoured. What it does not question is whether the system of banking is just in the first place. Kant’s concern is solely with the obligations of individuals. Universalization is Kant’s method for establishing the content of the moral law for individuals . This effectively excludes matters to do with issues such as banking, or matters concerned with the structural and political

in Constructing Foucault’s ethics
Open Access (free)
Art as the ‘organ of philosophy’
Andrew Bowie

people who ensure that the revelatory and progressive dimension of his work gets forgotten. This is an all too common failing of Left cultural politics. 8 On this issue in some detail see Bowie 1997, particularly with regard to Walter Benjamin. 9 Saussure often uses the analogy of language to money. 10 It is important to remember that without these processes much of what we cannot do without in the modern world becomes impossible. A wholesale rejection of them is not an option, though a critical awareness of how they can distort our relations to ourselves Art as the

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Abstract only
For the love of God
Sal Renshaw

and deliver him to an inn where he could be cared for (1991: 30). The Samaritan ‘stayed overnight at the inn with him, gave the innkeeper money to cover what had already been spent, and promised to pay whatever additional expenses the wounded man incurred, without limit’ (1991: 30). The Samaritan could not be thought of as responding to his neighbour in any commonsensical understanding of the term ‘neighbour’, which then raises the question of the structure of agapic love that is being demonstrated in the story. So generous was his fulfilment of the other’s need, so

in The subject of love
Sal Renshaw

, authority, power, money, or pleasure, all of which re-enforce his phallocentric narcissism. (1986a: 87) Thus, the masculine gift is inevitably a gift to himself. Man’s gift is conditional. While Cixous is willing to concede that a ‘free’ gift may be illusory, she is reluctant to accept that the masculine relation to ‘spending’, defined as it is by the laws of return, is the only possible gift ‘economy’. What remains to be asked, she says, is the how and why of giving that are reflected in ‘the values that the gesture of giving affirms, causes to circulate’ (1986a: 87

in The subject of love
Open Access (free)
Rainer Bauböck

of reducing the number of British tourists and the money they spend abroad (p. 130). There is indeed no justice-based claim of people working in the tourist industry to a constant demand for its services. In cases like these, the justification is entirely generic and does not even have to be delivered to the affected person; it is implied in the UK's right to take decisions that have external effects on markets. If the owner of the beach-bar calls the British

in Democratic inclusion
Abstract only
Melancholic dispositions and conscious unhappiness
Simon Mussell

level of resources (time, money, knowledge) needed to even contemplate certain ‘ethical’ actions reinforces rather than challenges the vast inequalities that already exist. Recognition of this fundamental conflict –​between, on the one hand, a universal happiness that ought to be, and, on the other, a particular happiness that holds sway in actuality –​can provide the basis for politicized negation, that is, a conscious unhappiness, which stands apart from the dictates of the ‘happiness industry’, renounces the ersatz pleasures on offer, and stands in solidarity with

in Critical theory and feeling
On the relation between law, politics, and other social systems in modern societies
Darrow Schecter

choice in ethical matters. See Immanuel Kant, ‘Appendix to “Perpetual Peace” ’, in Kant’s Political Writings, ed. Hans Reiss (Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1970), pp.  116–​30; Joseph Raz, The Morality of Freedom (Oxford:  Clarendon, 1986), ­chapter  1; and Barnett, Constitutional & Administrative Law, ­chapter 5. 38 Sarah Banet-​Weiser and Manuel Castells, ‘Economy is Culture’, in Manuel Castells (ed.), Another Economy is Possible:  Culture and Economy in a Time of Crisis (Cambridge: Polity, 2017), pp. 4–​33; and Ann Pettifor, The Production of Money

in Critical theory and sociological theory
David McGrogan

individual, therefore, is a turn in desperation to any group promising identity and physical and economic security – be they religious factions, ethnic groupings, or mafia networks (or, indeed, one might add brands, technology companies, or sports teams). 43 Most acutely, it results in “ties of allegiance” developing between employee and employer, such that the latter becomes ever more dependent on the former, no longer simply obeying orders for a certain period of time in exchange for money, but “totally mobilised” for its benefit in exchange for a kind of benign

in Critical theory and human rights
Andrew Bowie

. The commodity is defined precisely by its price, which takes priority over the value of the thing as an individual use-value: the amount of money the thing is worth makes it in one sense equivalent to any other thing worth that sum. The development of modernity is not least a result of the commodity form offering a means of exchanging anything for anything else. This possibility speeds social and material interchange and facilitates social innovations. Critiques of modernity often concentrate on the cultural consequences of this development, suggesting that it

in Aesthetics and subjectivity