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Timothy J. White

’s dilemma should not continue to cooperate if their opponent defects. This avoids the sucker’s payoff. It is not in any actor’s interest to be taken advantage of by another actor who has no interest in cooperation. This assumption conforms to neo-realism’s emphasis on the need for states to be prepared for any eventuality, including attack, in the anarchic international system.9 The need to defend oneself is well established in IR theory, and models of deterrence were built on the assumption that long-term patterns of hostile relations would yield better outcomes than

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
Christophe Wall-Romana

local stories into a fiction of lived reality, Epstein became de facto, as Pierre Leprohon claimed, ‘the pioneer of neo-realism’ (Leprohon, 1964: 47). But Epstein was seeking much more than a blank slate on which to create the ‘reality effect’ of coastal villagers’ lives. Roland Barthes calls ‘reality effect’ the efforts and means deployed to generate an impression of reality where there is no reality, only concerted artificiality. Epstein is not at all concerned with the inherent problem of realist filmmaking, that between reality vs. fiction and naturalism vs

in Jean Epstein
The Marshall Plan films about Greece
Katerina Loukopoulou

). This was another facet of the ‘Greek exception’ (alongside it being the only post-Civil War European country to receive the MP aid), because most of the MP films about a specific country were directed by national filmmakers, sometimes building on the country’s cinematographic and documentary tradition, as in the cases of Italy (neorealism) and the UK (the British Documentary Movement). Many MP films

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Abstract only
Brian McFarlane and Deane Williams

distinguished from the so-called ‘programme script’ of classical cinema where a ‘script organises the story into a fixed structure’, compared with which the ‘“plan-of action script” is more open to the uncertainties of the production, to chance encounters and ideas that come to the auteur in the here-and-now of filming’. 6 Crucial to this lineage of neo-realism as it runs into the French New Wave and informs this

in Michael Winterbottom
Abstract only
Don Fairservice

towards violence and death. What was especially noticeable in these melodramas was that their characters’ motivation was seldom related to any external social circumstances which affected peoples’ lives and determined their behaviour. The influential movement that sought to confront this kind of cinema, and which became known as neo-realism, evolved in Italy directly as a reaction to ‘the escapism, spectacle and rhetoric of the

in Film editing: history, theory and practice
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Germany in American post-war International Relations
Felix Rösch

reading of Morgenthau was indeed a misunderstanding. 85 Still, it was ‘productive’ because émigré scholars’ knowledge allowed Waltz to question commonly accepted liberal assumptions and, to this day, neorealism has retained a decisive influence on the discipline, at least in the US. Hence, although the example of Waltz demonstrates that the engagement with émigré thought did not establish more creative and humane world politics per se, it did create the space to rethink world politics. However, the integration of émigrés not only affected American scholarship, but

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
David Forrest

-ended structure’ 8 in art films; and David Bordwell, in his foundational study, emphasises that art cinema deals ‘with “real” subject matter, current psychological problems such as contemporary “alienation” and “lack of communication”’. 9 These definitions and taxonomies can be aligned with the historical development of realist film practice, as Galt and Schoonover argue: ‘Art cinema’s cohesion as a category first emerges with the popularity of Italian neorealism, and it retains a close association with the thematic and aesthetic impulses of the post-war tradition.’ 10 The

in British art cinema
Tim Bergfelder

the auspices of the Soviet occupying forces, and the first of a short-lived cycle of what has been referred to as ‘rubble’ films ( Trümmerfilme ) on account of their setting and use of location shooting in the bombed-out ruins of German cities in the immediate aftermath of the war. 19 The rubble film is often cited as German cinema’s ‘answer’ to Italian neo-realism, but has also been compared to film

in European film noir
Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen

’, Foreign Affairs, 69:5 (1990), pp. 91–106. Thomas U. Berger, ‘Norms, Identity, and National Security in Germany and Japan’, in Peter J. Katzenstein (ed.), The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics (New York: Columbia University Press), pp. 326 and 328; Duffield, World Power Forsaken, p. 27; Hanns W. Maull, ‘Germany and the Use of Force: Still a “Civilian Power?”’, Survival, 42:2 (2000), pp. 56–80. For the original and most influential formulation of neo-realism, see Kenneth N. Waltz, Theory of International Politics (Reading, MA: Addison

in Germany, pacifism and peace enforcement
Alejandro Melero Salvador

attributed to Pi. Some studies have attempted to find this type of social interest in the españoladas of the 1940s and 1950s, and it is true that, albeit rarely, it is possible to read some of these films as mild Spanish versions of neo-realism. This is not the case with El gato montés ; Pi’s film is not a folklore musical in which some socially related issues are inserted. On the contrary, El gato

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers