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Security aid, impunity and Muslim alienation
Jeremy Prestholdt

established pattern of al Shabaab actions. Events at Westgate encapsulated the recurring dynamics of terrorism and counterterrorism in Kenya. First, the attackers chose a ‘soft’ target. As in the past, this resulted in maximum media attention and a high number of civilian deaths, non-Muslims in particular. Second, despite warnings that such an attack was imminent, the assault evidenced a slow and uncoordinated response by security forces. 6 Finally, the attackers imagined their actions to be retaliation for those of Kenyan security forces domestically and in

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Disputed boundaries of a postcolonial state
Evan A. Laksmana and Michael Newell

This chapter seeks to describe how Indonesia has dealt with the threat of terrorism in the post-9/11 era. However, beyond merely identifying the country's counterterror policies, the analysis is placed within the broader context of how the state has historically dealt with internal security threats. This chapter argues that, contrary to the rhetoric of the ‘war on terror’, Indonesia's counterterrorism policies are neither a specific response to transnational terror networks, nor simply a by-product of the post-9/11 era. Instead, Indonesia

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
The role of the United Nations Security Council
Alice Martini

Introduction Counter-terrorism has undergone a significant shift since its ‘post-9/11’ inception. In the last decade, the language and the policies of the ‘war on terrorism’ started losing legitimacy. Maintaining this discursive structure and its practices meant that the discourse had to be reformulated against new challenges. The discourse on terrorism is now replete with references to radicalisation and extremism. These categories have become central in fighting terrorism but do not present a lesser grade of incongruency than their predecessors. Despite

in Encountering extremism
Abstract only
Tim Aistrope

THIS CHAPTER SHIFTS THE focus from foreign policy commentary to War on Terror doctrine. It does so by engaging with the Bush administration’s War of Ideas strategy, which aimed to undermine the cultural drivers of terrorism by winning the ‘hearts and minds’ of Arab-Muslims thought vulnerable to radicalisation. The strategic significance of this

in Conspiracy theory and American foreign policy
Towards supranational governance in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

The European Commission had become one of the more contentious actors during both Irish referenda on the Lisbon Treaty. This book discusses the role of the European Commission and institutions more generally, as well as the policy area of justice and home affairs. It argues that it is important to evaluate the role of EU institutions for the process of European integration. The book suggests a reconceptualisation of the framework of supranational policy entrepreneurs (SPEs), which is often referred to by the academic literature that discusses the role of agency in European integration. It focuses on the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) at the policy and treaty levels; primarily on four grounds: academic literature, SPE behaviour, EU's policymaking, and the interplay between treaty negotiations and policy-making. To analyse the role of the European institutions, the book combines an analysis of the Lisbon Treaty in relation to the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice with an analysis of the policy-making in the same area. The public policy model by John Kingdon with constructivist international relations literature is also outlined. The external dimension of counter-terrorism in the EU; the role of the EU institutions in EU asylum and migration; and the role of he Common European Asylum System (CEAS) is discussed. The book also analyses the role of the EU institutions in the communitarisation of the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, in the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, and thus subsequently in the Lisbon Treaty.

David Brown

Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU’s Third Pillar, propelled into the limelight by the events of September 11 and maintained by terrorist incidents in Spain and the UK. In the same period, the organisation’s most extensive enlargement, to embrace the eight CEE states, Malta and Cyprus, was undertaken. In fact, the two processes – widening the EU

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
Daniel Stevens and Nick Vaughan-Williams

Britain today and the threat of international terrorism: Well obviously you know the biggest security threat is from all these illegal immigrants and immigrants that we've got in this country, I'm not going to say I'm racist , but I just wish they'd all go back home because they're ruining this country, they

in Everyday security threats
Josefina A. Echavarria

industrial sector and the international community come together on this point. To achieve security, all must unite to fight terrorism. The DSP works to constitute a state that grounds freedom in in/security. Once in/security is achieved, freedom will be exercised. This way, the promise of in/security demands the present sacrifice of freedoms in order to feed the continuous search for a stable and secure ground that

in In/security in Colombia
Understanding state responses to terrorism in Egypt
Dina Al Raffie

-independence Egypt, the trajectory of modern-day jihadism traces its intellectual, ideological roots to late nineteenth-century Islamic reformers and, more concretely, to the founding of the Jama‘at al-Ikhwan al - Muslimun (the Muslim Brotherhood, henceforth Ikhwan). However, it would be misleading to present jihadism in general as the primary threat to Egyptian national security interests. Although Islamic extremism has arguably constituted the primary terrorist threat to the nation state since its independence, the Egyptian conceptualization of terrorism and the way in which

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Josefina A. Echavarria

, governments and the international community, I analyse the political consequences of adopting the current governmental definition of Colombia as a democratic nation-state under the threat of narco-terrorism (DSP, 2003; Uribe, 2005a). This perspective on the Colombian conflict also derives from the global war on terror in which the US and the Colombian governments project themselves as democracies under

in In/security in Colombia