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Editor: Waltraud Ernst

This edited book offers a systematic critical appraisal of the uses of work and work therapy in psychiatric institutions across the globe, from the late eighteenth to the end of the twentieth century. Contributors explore the daily routine in psychiatric institutions within the context of the wider socio-political and economic conditions. They examine whether work was therapy, part of a regime of punishment, or a means of exploiting free labour. By focusing on mental patients’ day-to-day life in closed institutions, the authors fill a gap in the history of psychiatric regimes. The geographic scope is wide, ranging from Northern America to Japan, India and Western as well as Eastern Europe, and authors engage with broader historical questions, such as the impact of colonialism and communism, the effect of the World Wars, and issues of political governance and care in the community schemes.

Hugh Cunningham

6 Men, work and leisure, 1850 –1970 T ime spent at work, daily, weekly, annually, declined over the period 1850 to 1970. Correspondingly, time for leisure increased. At a simple level this suggests a consistent preference for leisure time over work time. Other factors, however, affected the balance of how time was spent: concerns about employment opportunities and threats to them; rising standards of living; changes in the nature of work; a huge expansion of leisure facilities. Between them work time and leisure time gave men a sense of who they were, of their

in Time, work and leisure
Caregiving companions and medical travel facilitators
Ruth Holliday, Meredith Jones, and David Bell

86 Beautyscapes: mapping cosmetic surgery tourism 4 The work of cosmetic surgery tourism I: caregiving companions and medical travel facilitators Our aim in the next two chapters is to outline the various forms of work or labour that are brought together to make cosmetic surgery happen.1 Through this focus on work we aim to provide a detailed overview of the cosmetic surgery tourism industry, focusing on the key actors whose work is central to the production of cosmetic surgery tourism. In this chapter we look closely at two key groups, one providing unpaid

in Beautyscapes
Health workers and patients
Ruth Holliday, Meredith Jones, and David Bell

108 Beautyscapes: mapping cosmetic surgery tourism 5 The work of cosmetic surgery tourism II: health workers and patients The previous chapter provided an overview of the structure of the cosmetic surgery tourism industry as a prelude to a detailed exploration of the forms of work undertaken by some of the key actors in the cosmetic surgery tourism assemblage. Basing our discussion in sociological debates about ‘new’ forms of work or labour – care work, body work, emotional labour and aesthetic labour – we showed how informal caregiving companions and MTFs

in Beautyscapes
Hugh Cunningham

5 Work time in decline, 1830 –1970 F rom the 1830s hours of work, which increased over the period from 1750 onwards, began a long decline that lasted through to the 1970s. The decline began with daily hours, first for children, and then more widely. The pattern of the week began to be reshaped with St Monday losing out to Saturday afternoon. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, and with much greater impetus in the twentieth, annual holidays with pay became a possibility and eventually a norm. It was in the twentieth century, too, that retirement became

in Time, work and leisure
The mental hospital Hamburg-Langenhorn during the Weimar Republic
Monika Ankele

11 The patient’s view of work therapy: The mental hospital Hamburg-Langenhorn during the Weimar Republic Monika Ankele This chapter focuses on the Weimar period (1919–33) and the German mental hospital (Staatskrankenanstalt) Hamburg-Langenhorn. It examines the wider political and social factors that impacted on work therapy. My emphasis will be on how patients perceived their role as inmates, how they reacted to work therapy and how they dealt with an uncertain future on their discharge from the institution. I will argue that work therapy meant different things

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Nanna Mik-Meyer

2 Professions, de-professionalisation and welfare work Introduction As stated in the introduction, the concept of welfare worker makes it p ­ ossible to analyse the encounter between citizens and a broad group of people: those who have both long (professionals) and short (semi-­professionals) educations, as well as employees without any formal training for conducting welfare work. An important feature – and common denominator – of these people is that their work lives involve (or even revolve around) encounters with citizens in welfare institutions, encounters

in The power of citizens and professionals in welfare encounters
Torben Krings, Elaine Moriarty, James Wickham, Alicja Bobek, and Justyna Salamońska

5 Employment conditions and the culture of work This chapter addresses the experiences of Polish migrants in the Irish workplace. It explores to what extent their experiences were shaped by sectoral and occupational differences and how migrants interacted with employers and the regulatory environment of the Irish workplace. We show that the work experience of Polish migrants in less-skilled jobs in hospitality and construction was one of informality, non-compliance and casual employment. However, such employment was not necessarily perceived as a disadvantage

in New mobilities in Europe
Abigail Susik

In the post-World War I period, the surrealists were not alone in their position of needing to work and yet promoting work avoidance – or, for that matter, in their intention to support a proletarian revolution while maintaining a stance antagonistic to the productivism of the Communist Party in France and the USSR. The human desire to find meaning and purpose in life within and beyond the sphere of work, especially waged work, was not necessarily a question of political or class affiliation in France

in Surrealist sabotage and the war on work
David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

Disability and work in the coal economy 23 1 DISABILITY AND WORK IN THE COAL ECONOMY Thomas Burt’s early memories of mining were haunted by the sight of the mutilated bodies of his fellow workers. Remembering his work as a teenage pony putter in the 1850s, responsible for moving coal underground at Murton Colliery, County Durham, Burt recalled that ‘everywhere, below ground and above, dangers stood thick’. Compounded by the ‘rush and recklessness’ of workers there, these dangers meant accidents were common. ‘Never’, he wrote in his autobiography published

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution