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Positioning, Politics and Pertinence
Natalie Roberts

. , Brown , H. and Borchert , M. ( 2020 ), ‘ What Do Adaptations Tell Us about the Production of Trust? Shifting the “Burden of Change” from People to the Response ’, Humanitarian Exchange, Number 77: Special Feature – Responding to Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo , (accessed

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

per cent of north-east Syria, with a population of approximately 4 million. The remainder of opposition armed groups, supported by Turkey, control around 15 per cent in the north-west with a population of approximately 3.5 million ( Humanitarian Needs Overview, 2019 ). Health services in each territory have been provided using different adaptation mechanisms to the conflict. In the opposition-controlled areas, with the collapse of the health system and the withdrawal by the Damascus Ministry of Health, local medical networks – relying on limited local resources, the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Hakim Khaldi

intellectually and described for each zone the constant adaptations made to allow MSF to put in place and maintain its relief operations. Here is a summary of the issues that arose in the different areas of operation. In the north-west, the issue was the need to switch from a direct management to a remote management mode, with Syrian colleagues pursuing MSF’s relief operations in an environment where the kidnapping of journalists and then aid workers had become a common occurrence

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial Refugee Woman
Annika Bergman Rosamond and Catia Gregoratti

faced intimidations and violence ( Ritchie, 2017 , 2018 ). Yet, in doing so, it paradoxically keeps refugee women in the private sphere, where they are expected to and often prefer to belong. A study conducted by REACH and UN Women (2017) , however, has indicated that such preference can be understood as a form of adaptation to restrictive livelihood environments and limited availability of household resources. It further suggests that

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
Tom Scott-Smith

documentary series How Buildings Learn ( Brand, 1994 ). The problem with architecture, Brand suggested, was it is so often driven by the grand visions of an expert designer, who focus on producing finished blueprints and plans that are not open to adaptation or truly responsive to the needs of inhabitants. A similar line of argument also emerged in the work of John Turner (1972) , who advocated the importance of placing dwellers in control, rejecting the top-down tendency

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

adaptation in the humanitarian field ( Sandvik, 2017 ) and consider humanitarian pasts and futures: earlier humanitarian uses of body tracking devices for care and control, together with how contemporary affordances in emergencies shape ideas about what wearables can be used for, on whom and how. I suggest that what the ‘humanitarian wearable’ tells us about the nature of digital humanitarianism can be the point of departure for articulating a critique of aid in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

those Palestinians who rely on UNRWA-provided services and by UNRWA’s Palestinian employees. Nonetheless, these impacts continue to be erased from view by a contract and risk-management culture that maintains the primacy of international (read: non-Palestinian) actors and ideological priorities. In the context of UNRWA’s institutional adaptation to long-standing financial crises, a push for cost-efficiency and the desire to maximise ‘value for money’ (and shift responsibility for refugees to ‘local’ actors), have all been characterised by the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

French literature on screen is a multi-author volume whose eleven chapters plus an introduction offer case histories of the screen versions of major literary works by such authors as Victor Hugo, Marcel Proust, Françoise Sagan, and George Simenon. Written by leading experts in the field, the various chapters in this volume offer insightful investigations of the artistic, cultural, and industrial processes that have made screen versions of French literary classics a central element of the national cinema.

French literature on screen breaks new scholarly ground by offering the first trans-national account of this important cultural development. These film adaptations have been important in both the American and British cinemas as well. English language screen adaptations of French literature evince the complexity of the relationship between the two texts, the two media, as well as opening up new avenues to explore studio decisions to contract and distribute this particular type of ‘foreign’ cinema to American and British audiences. In many respects, the ‘foreign’ quality of master works of the French literary canon remain their appeal over the decades from the silent era to the present.

The essays in this volume also address theoretical concerns about the interdependent relationship between literary and film texts; the status of the ‘author’, and the process of interpretation will be addressed in these essays, as will dialogical, intertextual, and transtextual approaches to adaptation.

The volume offers a new method of interpreting screen adaptations of Shakespearean drama, focusing on the significance of cinematic genres in the analysis of films adapted from literary sources. The book’s central argument is rooted in the recognition that film genres may provide the most important context informing a film’s production, critical and popular reception. The novelty of the volume is in its use of a genre-based interpretation as an organising principle for a systematic interpretation of Shakespeare film adaptations. The book also highlights Shakespearean elements in several lesser-known films, hoping to generate new critical attention towards them. The volume is organised into six chapters, discussing films that form broad generic groups. Part I comprises three genres from the classical Hollywood era (western, melodrama and gangster noir), while Part II deals with three contemporary blockbuster genres (teen film, undead horror and the biopic). The analyses underline elements that the films have inherited from Shakespeare, while emphasising how the adapting genre leaves a more important mark on the final product than the textual source. The volume’s interdisciplinary approach means that its findings are rooted in both Shakespeare and media studies, underlining the crucial role genres play in the production and reception of literature as well as in contemporary popular visual culture.

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Jean Baudrillard and The Matrix Trilogy

The extensive literature on the philosophical aspects of The Matrix Trilogy perpetuates a number of highly problematic models for inter-relating philosophy and film texts. This book demonstrates the prevalence of the binary hierarchies of high/low culture, philosophy/film and word/image in much of the philosophical writing on The Matrix Trilogy. These have the effect of ensuring that the films could not make a contribution to philosophy. The author's delineation of a new methodology undermines these binary hierarchies, combining aspects of Kamilla Elliott's work on adaptation and Michèle Le Doeuff's writing on Western philosophy, to show that philosophical and filmic texts are profoundly linked through their reliance on symbolic figuration. Le Doeuff's work on the important conceptual role of imagery within philosophy has also been expanded to provide a means of considering the philosophical implications of the complex figures created by the filmic multitrack. The book traces the ways in which The Matrix Trilogy takes up and transforms Jean Baudrillard's work, thereby creating its own postmodern position. The trilogy addresses a key question arising from Baudrillard's work: is there any possibility of revolution or radical change within a pre-programmed system? The films' positive answer is created through a series of sustained changes to Baudrillard's figures and concepts. The author has shown that the films depart from the singularity that characterises Baudrillard's conception of the hyperreal and the code, offering a series of multiple, different, hyperreal worlds and codes.