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Open Access (free)
Jeffrey Flynn

. Even when humanitarians rely on stock iconographies of suffering, they always do so in light of specific aims and in a particular context coloured by a background culture. For example, in ‘The Limits of Exposure’, Kevin Grant captures how the moral milieu of reformers and their audience colours the content and mode of disseminating images. He focuses on how gender norms affected when and how sexual violence was or was not portrayed in photographs and narratives by the Congo

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Valérie Gorin

wrong or right, or you can go from the ethical perspective (the ethos), the name-shame strategy, and then you go for papers. This is when visual content makes sense. Having held the position of a senior coordinator for attacks on healthcare, it’s very surreal to imagine that you’re getting bombed. And when you put somebody in a virtual reality situation, make him go through pretending to feel what’s happening, there’s a real emotional impact. They get it. Some people don’t. Some people may have some trauma triggered. So, especially if you recreate a trauma situation

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Brendan T. Lawson

the need for moral and financial support ( de Waal, 1997 ; Lawrence and Brun, 2011 ; Franks, 2013 ; Dijkzeul and Sandvik, 2019 ). Such a relationship is then set within the broader relationship between humanitarian organisations seeking discursive exposure and news media organisations desiring more content with less resources ( Cottle, 2009 ; Chouliaraki, 2013 ). But to think through the unanswered questions around meaning, quantification and humanitarianism, I

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

Nongovernmental Organizations’ , 26 October , US Department of State , Washington, DC , https://avalon.law.yale.edu/sept11/powell_brief31.asp (accessed 17 July 2019) . Roberts , A. ( 2010 ), ‘Lives and Statistics: Are 90% of War Victims Civilians?’ , Survival , 52 : 3 , 115 – 36 , https://weblearn.ox.ac.uk/access/content

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Aid Industry and the ‘Me Too’ Movement
Charlotte Lydia Riley

: Internationalism, Globalisation, and Gender ’, Renewal , 27 : 1 , 52 – 7 . Save the Children ( 2018 ), The Independent Review of Workplace Culture at Save the Children UK, Final Report, 8th October 2018 , www.savethechildren.org.uk/content/dam/gb/reports/independent-review-of-workplace-culture-at-save-the-children-uk.pdf (accessed 1 October 2020

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

, J. ( 2016 ), ‘ “No Voice Can Be Heard Above the Gunfire”: Protection, Partnerships and Politicking in the Syrian Civil War ’, Humanitarian Effectiveness Project , http://humanitarianeffectivenessproject.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Syria_Jessica_Field_HAT.pdf (accessed 5 September 2018 ). Fiori , J. and Rigon , A. (eds) ( 2017 ), Making Lives: Refugee Self-Reliance and Humanitarian Action in Cities ( London : Humanitarian Affairs Team, Save the Children ). Fisk

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
How Can Humanitarian Analysis, Early Warning and Response Be Improved?
Aditya Sarkar, Benjamin J. Spatz, Alex de Waal, Christopher Newton, and Daniel Maxwell

( London : London School of Economics and Political Science ). Geneva Call ( 2021 ), Understanding Humanitarian Access and the Protection of Civilians in an Era of Depoliticized War ( Geneva : Geneva Call ), www.genevacall.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Geneva-Call-South-Sudan-Report-Final.pdf (accessed

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

of the Save the Children Fund “for a cause which it believes to be largely illusory and thoroughly inept”’ ( Record , 1921b : 83). The SCF thus advocated for using visual evidence: Yet we are content to hide our heads, ostrich-like, and thinking that because we will not see these things they do not exist, to pursue the even tenour of our way.… It is, in a very special sense, ‘eyes to the blind’ in this matter. With its emissaries scattered all over Europe and in Asia Minor, its central head quarters in Geneva and its well-informed information department, the IU

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

pictured people in the midst of various tasks suggestive of capability and willingness to actively better their own conditions. Hine was ascribing the term ‘refugee’ to numerous captions of the pictures he made in France during the war and on the Special Survey tour after the war. It is unknown what definition or guidance Hine relied on to make his determination as to who was a refugee or not, but his photographs – perhaps even in spite of himself – contributed to defining the term. The content and themes in Hine’s refugee-labeled photographs contain elements that are

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

competing interests. The salary of the first author is covered partially by UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) as part of the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF); Research for Health in Conflict in the Middle East and North Africa (R4HC-MENA) project, grant number ES/P010962/1. Authors’ Contributions Abdulkarim Ekzayez carried out the study design, conceptual framework, data analysis, literature search, first draft of the paper, multiple rounds of edits and produced the final manuscript. Ammar Sabouni contributed a substantial amount of content, added further

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs