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Open Access (free)
Tony Fitzpatrick

This chapter analyses the principles of sustainability and attention of ecowelfare by studying the new genetics. It argues for a multidimensional conception of human nature where the maintenance of diversity through social solutions (rather than technological fixes) should be the priority. It discusses the positions of Charles Murray and Francis Fukayama on eugenics. This concludes that we should only be allowed to improve human well-being through biotechnology if we are also prepared to improve it through the implementation of policies based upon distributive justice and attention.

in After the new social democracy
The moron as an immoral sinner and an object of protection
Gerald V. O’Brien

leaders. Eugenic control and the religious metaphor Many of the authors of secondary works on the subject have referred to the eugenics movement, especially for its most zealous supporters, as a religious endeavor or even a ‘secular religion’.14 Eugenicists themselves often did describe their program as a ‘new religion’. Sir Francis Galton, for example, wrote that the subject ‘must be introduced into the national conscience, like a new religion’. Eugenics has, he continued, ‘strong claims to become an orthodox religious tenet of the future’, since it ‘co

in Framing the moron
Abstract only
The moron as a poorly functioning human
Gerald V. O’Brien

that ‘the family study authors turned “the real thing” – the subjects they studied – into a set of signs. By carefully selecting descriptions, using bumpkin pseudonyms, and sending covert signals to readers, the authors constructed a symbolic world’.22 Importantly, the term ‘moron’, as a word that was only created shortly after the turn of the century, and roughly at the beginning of the eugenics movement, gave supporters the opportunity to invest whatever symbolic rhetoric they desired into it. This issue will be taken up again in the final chapter of this book. As

in Framing the moron
A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.

Encounters with biosocial power
Author: Kevin Ryan

Refiguring childhood stages a series of encounters with biosocial power, which is a specific zone of intensity within the more encompassing arena of biopower and biopolitics. Assembled at the intersection of thought and practice, biosocial power attempts to bring envisioned futures into the present, taking hold of life in the form of childhood, thereby bridging being and becoming while also shaping the power relations that encapsulate the social and cultural world(s) of adults and children. Taking up a critical perspective which is attentive to the contingency of childhoods – the ways in which particular childhoods are constituted and configured – the method used in the book is a transversal genealogy that moves between past and present while also crossing a series of discourses and practices framed by children’s rights (the right to play), citizenship, health, disadvantage and entrepreneurship education. The overarching analysis converges on contemporary neoliberal enterprise culture, which is approached as a conjuncture that helps to explain, and also to trouble, the growing emphasis on the agency and rights of children. It is against the backdrop of this problematic that the book makes its case for refiguring childhood. Focusing on the how, where and when of biosocial power, Refiguring childhood will appeal to researchers and students interested in examining the relationship between power and childhood through the lens of social and political theory, sociology, cultural studies, history and geography.

The moron as an enemy force
Gerald V. O’Brien

within the country often took on an unmistakable urgency: a plea for the very survival of ‘civilized’ culture. Eugenicists argued that not only was the United States no longer moving forward as a people, but the race was actually beginning to degenerate because of the expansion of the moron population through massive immigration and the remarkable fecundity among the lower (and presumably less intelligent) classes. In contrast with the situation in Nazi Germany, where positive and negative eugenics were equally supported, eugenics in the United States was almost

in Framing the moron
The case of mitochondrial transfer
Iain Brassington

requires a specific legal provision; but it is easy enough to make provision for more or less anything, and the mtDNA provision is important because it appears to break the back of the principled prohibition on human genetic engineering. From a certain perspective, there is little difference between adding desirable genes to a zygote or embryo by mtDNA transfer and adding other desirable genes by other methods. The spectre of eugenics haunts the debate at this juncture, and the word has been used to describe mitochondrial transfer in the media (Newman 2013). On the face

in The freedom of scientific research
Open Access (free)
Postcolonial governance and the policing of family
Author: Joe Turner

Bordering intimacy is a study of how borders and dominant forms of intimacy, such as family, are central to the governance of postcolonial states such as Britain. The book explores the connected history between contemporary border regimes and the policing of family with the role of borders under European and British empires. Building upon postcolonial, decolonial and black feminist theory, the investigation centres on how colonial bordering is remade in contemporary Britain through appeals to protect, sustain and make family life. Not only was family central to the making of colonial racism but claims to family continue to remake, shore up but also hide the organisation of racialised violence in liberal states. Drawing on historical investigations, the book investigates the continuity of colonial rule in numerous areas of contemporary government – family visa regimes, the policing of sham marriages, counterterror strategies, deprivation of citizenship, policing tactics, integration policy. In doing this, the book re-theorises how we think of the connection between liberal government, race, family, borders and empire. In using Britain as a case, this opens up further insights into the international/global circulations of liberal empire and its relationship to violence.

Author: Jacopo Pili

Anglophobia in Fascist Italy traces the roots of Fascist Anglophobia from the Great War and through the subsequent peace treaties and its development during the twenty years of Mussolini’s regime. Initially, Britain was seen by many Italians as a ‘false friend’ who was also the main obstacle to Italy’s foreign policy aspirations, a view embraced by Mussolini and his movement. While at times dormant, this Anglophobic sentiment did not disappear in the years that followed, and was later rekindled during the Ethiopian War. The peculiarly Fascist contribution to the assessment of Britain was ideological. From the mid-1920s, the regime’s intellectuals saw Fascism as the answer to a crisis in the Western world and as irredeemably opposed to Western civilisation of the sort exemplified by Britain. Britain was described as having failed the ‘problem of labour’, and Fascism framed as a salvation ideology, which nations would either embrace or face decay. The perception of Britain as a decaying and feeble nation increased after the Great Depression. The consequence of this was a consistent underrating of British power and resolve to resist Italian ambitions. An analysis of popular reception of the Fascist discourse shows that the tendency to underrate Britain had permeated large sectors of the Italian people, and that public opinion was more hostile to Britain than previously thought. Indeed, in some quarters hatred towards the British lasted until the end of the Second World War, in both occupied and liberated Italy.

Open Access (free)
Caroline Rusterholz

countries. Eugenics – a term coined by Francis Galton in his 1883 Inquiries into Human Faculty to describe a science ‘that focused on manipulating heredity or breeding to produce better people and on eliminating those considered biologically inferior’  33 – was one of the main tendencies before 1920 in Britain, partly due to concerns about colonial expansion. The Eugenics Education Society was formed in 1907, and the majority of its members were recruited from among middle-class professionals

in Women’s medicine