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How rich countries dominate in the twenty-first century
Author: Sam King

"Over a hundred years since the beginning of modern imperialism, the former colonial world is still prevented from joining the club of imperialist powers. The gap between rich and poor countries is not narrowing but growing. China is usually presented as challenging the dominance of the United States and other rich countries. However, imperialist domination over the most sophisticated aspects of the labour process gives the rich countries and their corporations control over the global labour process as a whole – including in China. Third World producers are forced to specialise in the opposite types of work – in relatively simple and low-end labour, for which major price markups and large profits are rarely possible. This is the kernel of unequal exchange in world trade. The imperialist system develops two types of capital – monopoly and non-monopoly capital – and two types of societies – rich, monopoly, imperialist societies and poor, non-monopoly, ‘Third World’ societies. China’s ascendance to become the most powerful Third World country in no way threatens to topple continuing imperialist dominance. Most contemporary Marxist writing has not been focused on global income polarisation and imperialist exploitation of the poor countries. For this reason, it has been unable to explain how exactly the same countries continuously reproduce their dominance. However, the actual conditions of the neoliberal world economy have made explicit how this happens through the labour process itself. In doing so it has also shown how Marx’s labour theory of value can be concretely applied to the conditions of monopoly capital today.

Iain Lindsey, Tess Kay, Ruth Jeanes, and Davies Banda

1 Sport for development in policy, practice and research Sport has a lengthy history of servicing ‘social development’ objectives. The contemporary SfD movement is thus following a well-known tradition that includes the use of sport to support, for example, ‘muscular Christianity’ in the nineteenth century and diverse development aims in the twentieth (Beacom, 2007 ; Kidd, 2011 ; Darnell, 2012 ). The use of sport for these purposes has

in Localizing global sport for development
Alireza F. Farahani and Azadeh Hadizadeh Esfahani

Introduction Doing development work and being reflective is a frustrating and confusing matter. Every decision in the field or in policy circles, or in interaction with academics, can be extremely challenging. If you have been through a rigorous critical education and you still want to do something to improve the material living conditions for people who have not benefited or have been harmed by prevailing development discourses, policies and practices, you are faced with dilemmas. If the desire to make a difference was missing, it would be easy to find an

in The power of pragmatism
Uyilawa Usuanlele

came to be tied to the indirect system of rule and development ‘along native lines’ policy that was adopted by various colonial administrations. 1 The introduction of colonial development policies from the late 1920s, particularly the Colonial Development and Welfare Act (CDWA) of 1940 which had a welfare component, is said to have had a beneficial impact on education in Africa

in Developing Africa
The case of colonial Zambia
Sven Speek

The ‘greening’ of development seems to represent a comparatively recent phase in development thought. Labels like eco-, environmentally sensitive, green, or sustainable development promise an alternative to conventional concepts of development through the integration of ecological principles. 1 A historical analysis of the idea of development

in Developing Africa
Michael Woolcock, Simon Szreter, and Vijayendra Rao

Bayly 01_Tonra 01 21/06/2011 10:15 Page 3 1 How and why history matters for development policy 1 Michael Woolcock, Simon Szreter and Vijayendra Rao Study history, study history. In history lies all the secrets of statecraft. Winston Churchill Getting history wrong is an essential part of being a nation. Ernest Renan [M]odern social science, policy-making and planning have pursued a model of scientism and technical manipulation which systematically, and deliberately, neglects human, and above all, historical, experience. The fashionable model of analysis and

in History, historians and development policy
The case of Oxfam
Craig Berry

06c Globalisation 144-163 2/2/11 15:10 Page 144 6 Trade justice and development: the case of Oxfam Oxfam is one of the largest non-governmental organisations in the world. While it has an organisational presence in many countries, it is a predominantly British-based actor. Whereas IFSL, for instance, provided representation within Britain for predominantly transnational actors, Oxfam enables a transnational political platform for British activists. This orientation may itself say something significant about the organisation’s approach to globalisation. Given

in Globalisation and ideology in Britain
Iain Lindsey, Tess Kay, Ruth Jeanes, and Davies Banda

2 Sport, development and the political-economic context of Zambia This chapter examines how the wider political and economic context in Zambia has been influential in shaping the historical governance of sport and the expansion of the SfD ‘movement’ in the country. As the previous chapter has shown, within the academic literature most attention has been paid to the global expansion of SfD; a further, smaller body of

in Localizing global sport for development
Paul Collinson

3 Environmental attitudes, community development, and local politics in Ireland Paul Collinson Anyone who has ever visited Ireland will be immediately struck by the natural beauty of the country. From the rugged uplands of the west, the golden beaches of Cork and Kerry, the rolling drumlins of the midlands to the sea cliffs of the north, Ireland is undoubtedly blessed with one of the richest and most diverse environmental endowments in Europe. Attracted by tourist brochures and advertisements which play heavily on images of Ireland as a rural paradise, tourists

in Alternative countrysides
Derek Paget

6 Histories: second-phase ­developments ‘Public goods’ (USA) versus ‘public good’ (UK) In my account of docudrama’s second phase I will argue that different-but-related broadcasting cultures in the USA and the UK were gradually drawing together during this period. In America, broadcasting served a variety of needs (which, of course, centred on the all important selling of goods to the public – hence my coinage ‘public goods’). In the UK this period was still marked by a robust ­concept of public service (hence ‘public good’). But from this point on the market

in No other way to tell it