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Acupuncture and the techno-politics of bodyscape
Wen-Hua Kuo

from Chinese doctors, who learned of Nogier's diagram in the 1950s and developed their own diagram according to TCM theory (Rubach 2001 [1995] ). Some mistranslations read harmless. As TCM expert Deshen Wang pointed out ( 1987 ), early Westerners used the Wades-Giles Romanization system and ignored the fact that some characters have several readings (such as the character ‘俞’,which should be read as ‘shu’ instead of ‘yu’ when used in acupuncture points). Some people misrecognized Chinese characters and, as a result, their romanization was

in Global health and the new world order
Abstract only
Elisabeth Carter

systems can be mapped to some extent, it is not possible to locate the right-wing extremist parties within this space. Expert judgements A final way in which the political space of a system may be mapped – and the one employed in this chapter – is by using expert judgements. This approach, pioneered by Castles and Mair (1984), asks country experts (drawn from the political science community) to locate the political parties of their respective systems on one or more scales.5 The original questionnaires designed by Castles and Mair simply asked experts to locate the

in The extreme right in Western Europe
Caroline Rusterholz

of birth control, and instead concentrated on applied scientific knowledge of contraceptive methods. This experience made them skilled in debating the issue at international levels, reinforcing their expertise and positioning them as experts on these issues. British women doctors were also instrumental in the creation of the first international movement specifically dedicated to spreading the ‘gospel of birth control’ in the interwar years, namely the Birth Control International Information Centre (BCIIC). After the Second

in Women’s medicine
Exclusive brethren
Ian Carter

‘Only a few years ago the smaller models now so often seen were considered by the leading exponents of the craft to be practical impossibilities. Such mistaken notions have since been completely disproved.’25 He was thinking of experts for whom 0 gauge had seemed the smallest practical scale; but his argument bears wider application. As commercial electric motors shrank in size, the ‘load gauge’ argument’s validity withered; but by then it was too late to rectify the anomaly. The vast majority of British railway modellers still work today at scale/gauge relationships

in British railway enthusiasm
Livestock statistics and expertise in the late nineteenth-century Cape Colony, 1850-1900
Dawn Nell

helped to swing the balance in favour of the former, ensuring that the perspectives of Progressive farmers and state experts be regarded as expert knowledge , while relegating the understandings of other farmers to the status of mere superstition. In a discussion on the Cape’s railway system in 1890, Thomas Theron, MP for Richmond, complained of the ease with which the opinions of many of the

in Science and society in southern Africa

British 21st-century public for a war with significant domestic ramifications would be extremely demanding, not least in the justification of the measures being taken, the use and publication of expert advice and opinion, and government engagement with dissenting views. This chapter aims to investigate what moral factors statesmen and those involved in the nuclear deterrence mission consider. In particular, recourse to the ‘supreme emergency argument’ will be tested in the context of contemporary ethical arguments

in Supreme emergency
Open Access (free)
Shirin M. Rai

, held in Geneva, Switzerland, from 15 to 17 September 1997. Its purpose was to share experiences and lessons learned between and among bilateral and multilateral organizations about mainstreaming for gender equality as a crucial element in the transformation of the development agenda. At the national level, institutions set up for the advancement of women would be the main mechanisms through which mainstreaming would be pursued. In 1998, DAW, in collaboration with the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, organized an expert group meeting on

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Power, accountability and democracy

Does European integration contribute to, or even accelerate, the erosion of intra-party democracy? This book is about improving our understanding of political parties as democratic organisations in the context of multi-level governance. It analyses the impact of European Union (EU) membership on power dynamics, focusing on the British Labour Party, the French Socialist Party (PS), and the German Social Democratic Party (SPD). The purpose of this book is to investigate who within the three parties determines EU policies and selects EU specialists, such as the candidates for European parliamentary elections and EU spokespersons.

The book utilises a principal-agent framework to investigate the delegation of power inside the three parties across multiple levels and faces. It draws on over 65 original interviews with EU experts from the three national parties and the Party of European Socialists (PES) and an e-mail questionnaire. This book reveals that European policy has largely remained in the hands of the party leadership. Its findings suggest that the party grassroots are interested in EU affairs, but that interest rarely translates into influence, as information asymmetry between the grassroots and the party leadership makes it very difficult for local activists to scrutinise elected politicians and to come up with their own policy proposals. As regards the selection of EU specialists, such as candidates for the European parliamentary elections, this book highlights that the parties’ processes are highly political, often informal, and in some cases, undemocratic.

Judith Renner

reconciliation discourse in Sierra Leone. The remainder of this chapter, however, will first examine another aspect of the global technology of reconciliation, namely the co-constitution of an expert force of reconciliation agents, which is crucial for maintaining and further proliferating the reconciliation technology in global politics. The constitution of an expert force of reconciliation In chapter 1 , I

in Discourse, normative change and the quest for reconciliation in global politics
The Albanian mafia
Xavier Raufer

coastline to nearby Italy is anything but spontaneous and disorderly. According to a number of first-hand accounts – and the best Albanian and Italian experts – it is, on the contrary, a concerted operation aimed at making Puglia a criminal outpost in the Balkans for the European Union. At the point of departure ships are ‘requisitioned’ by disciplined, well-armed teams – not by panic-stricken, destitute hordes. Passengers are carefully selected on the basis of future possibilities of ‘agreement’ and of their hard currency funds; once on board, order is assured by armed

in Potentials of disorder