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Bryan Fanning

-butnow-dead culture. Both had different views on the merits and costs of such a project, with Binchy siding with O’Faoláin. A modern Irish culture, Tierney argued, could be built on the old Gaelic culture but a viable political system could not. The nationstate, he explained, was a nineteenth-century invention that ‘coincided with the decay and gradual disappearance of the native ways of thought, life, and expression’. Tierney drew a parallel between the then-disjuncture between Irish culture and politics and what occurred when the Normans became Gaelicised, when cultural

in Irish adventures in nation-building
The return of the repressed in Roddy Doyle’s Paula Spencer
Jennifer M. Jeffers

absurdity of her own culpability: ‘He hit me, he hit his children, he hit other people, he killed a woman – I kept blaming myself. For provoking him’ (p. 170). One aspect that is certain, Charlo’s behaviour is sanctioned by the authorities and by Irish culture. When visiting a doctor about her injuries, Paula is asked if she had been drinking: ‘Have you had a drink Mrs Spencer?’ And friends and family members ask her what she said to him to provoke him: ‘Did you say something to him Paula?’ and ultimately: ‘Why did you marry him then, Paula?’ (p. 171). Judged

in Irish literature since 1990
Abstract only
McGahern’s personal and detached reflections
Tom Inglis

picture, as a social scientist might try to do, or to deliberately construct a particular image, as a journalist or commentator may do. Rather, he saw himself as an artist who painted with words and, as he said, his fingerprints are all over his work.1 All the pictures he paints of Irish culture and society are personal but, at the same time, he insisted that there was a gap between his own personal life experiences and the characters and events that he described. While his own life experiences were a source for much of his writing, McGahern made a strong distinction

in John McGahern
The new Irish multicultural fiction
Amanda Tucker

literary figures in as high regard as Ireland does. In the wake of independence, however, the Republic of Ireland rejected the notion of multiple Irelands and focused on a Gaelic Catholic monolith as the epicentre of Irish culture. In response, a wave of Irish writers left in protest of State censorship and oppression. Today, the distinctions between the State and the artist are not so dichotomised: while the Irish State still rigidly defines 50 The new Irish multicultural fiction Irishness, artists often unwittingly reinforce the message of Ireland’s resistance to

in Literary visions of multicultural Ireland
The poetry of Sinéad Morrissey, Leontia Flynn, Mary O’Malley, and Michael Hayes
Katarzyna Poloczek

‘Tourism’: ‘There are many cultural guardians who see the mixing of the global with the local as a form of foreign contamination that will eventually destroy traditional Irish culture’ (Inglis, 2008: 63). In the end, Morrissey’s speaker succeeds in subverting the aforementioned views, by mocking and challenging them with her own ‘foreignising’, world-traveller’s attitude.5 As in Morrissey’s ‘Tourism’, the female voice in Mary O’Malley’s poem ‘Dublinia’ belongs to a worldly-wise migrant ‘whose capitals were Lisbon and New York’ (O’Malley, 2006: 67). This poem similarly

in Literary visions of multicultural Ireland
Black Baby’s revision of Irish motherhood
Maureen T. Reddy

established argument that ‘women only exist as a function of their maternity in the dominant ideology of Southern Ireland’, with the mother positioned in Irish culture as ‘an all-powerful, dehumanized figure’ (Meaney, 1994: 230–1). Siobhan Kilfeather, in ‘Irish Feminism’, traces the modern history of the valorisation of motherhood above all other possible roles for women back 217 Maureen T. Reddy to the early twentieth century, when ‘leaders of the Catholic Church in Ireland repeatedly entwined discourses of racial purity, national pride and patriarchal authority

in Literary visions of multicultural Ireland
Geraldine Moane

students who were moderate to heavy drinkers, Sinéad Ní Chaoláin found a consistent theme of feeling the need to drink in order to perform socially, epitomised in the following: ‘I felt . . . I couldn’t go out if I wasn’t tanked up, like we were supposed to have the craic’. Phrases linking Irishness to drink recurred – ‘we’re Irish, we drink’. Open-ended responses in a survey of 312 students provided an overall sense not only of permission but of pressure in Irish culture to drink. Thus ‘the Irish as drinkers’ operates as a perception by others, as an identity or

in Are the Irish different?
Martin Dowling

practices which continued to be recognised as central to social life. Ireland’s geographical and geopolitical position, its habitats and agricultural habits, the voices of its languages etc. all contributed to continuity. My point is to question, as Leerssen has done, the validity of the conception that Irish culture is somehow bifurcated, with one part constantly assimilating and accommodating itself first to the Empire and later to a broader globalised culture, and another part which never changes, serving as a repository of ancient essence. It is helpful to conceive

in Are the Irish different?
The Catholic Church during the Celtic Tiger Years
Eamon Maher

boardrooms. It was about the body, not the body politic. Masturbation was a much more serious sin than tax evasion. In a mindset where homosexuality was a much worse sin than cooking the books, it was okay to be bent as long as you were straight. (O’Toole 2009, p. 183) As Irish culture became fixated on the pursuit of material wealth at all costs, there was a move away from the religious ‘habitus’ that had held sway for a number of centuries. In the words of the sociologist Tom Inglis, Ireland went from a culture of self-­denial to one of self-­indulgence (Inglis 2006, pp

in From prosperity to austerity
Abstract only
Leanne McCormick

Irish Culture and Politics (Dublin, 1991); Maryann Valiulis, ‘Power, Gender and Identity in the Irish Free State’, in Joan Hoff and Moureen Coulter (eds), Irish Women’s Voices: Past and Present (Bloomington, 1995), pp. 117–136. 2 Ryan, Gender, Identity, p. 42. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid., p. 49. 5 Brozyna, Labour, Love and Prayer, p. 27. 6 Jan Jindy Pettman, ‘Boundary Politics: Women, Nationalism and Danger’, in Mary Maynard and June Purvis (eds), New Frontiers in Women’s Studies: Knowledge, Identity and Nationalism (London, 1996), p. 195. 7 Mahood, The Magdalenes, p. 165. 8 See

in Regulating sexuality