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Green reading
Gillian Rudd

readers. At the same time, working with material such as Chaucer’s poetry, the works of the Pearl poet and Langland will show that green concerns are not restricted to texts that deal exclusively and obviously with human/non-human nature relations. That is not to say that green analysis of less well-known material should not be done, merely that it is not done here. Which brings us to the question: what is ecocriticism? Rebecca Douglass has provided a succinct definition in her article ‘Ecocriticism and Middle English Literature’ where she says: ‘ecocriticism is reading

in Greenery
Tim William Machan

English literature’, in James Graham-Campbell, Richard Hall, Judith Jesch, and David N. Parsons (eds), Vikings and the Danelaw: Select Papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress (Oxford: Oxbow, 2001), p. 345. 28 Eleanor Parker, ‘Siward the Dragon-slayer: Mythmaking in Anglo-Scandinavian England’, Neophilologus 98 (2014), 481–493; and Richard Cole, ‘British perspectives’, in J. Glauser, P. Hermann, and S. A. Mitchell (eds), Handbook of Pre-modern, Nordic Memory Studies: Interdisciplinary Approaches , 2 vols (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2018), vol. 1

in Northern memories and the English Middle Ages
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Lauren Mancia

. 36–8; Sarah McNamer, Affective Meditation and the Invention of Medieval Compassion (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010), pp. 58–85; Anne Derbes, Picturing the Passion in Late Medieval Italy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 1–11; A.S. Lazikani, Cultivating the Heart: Feeling and Emotion in Twelfth- and Thirteenth-Century Religious Texts (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2015), pp. 1–24; Nicole Rice, Lay Piety and Religious Discipline in Middle English Literature (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 1

in Emotional monasticism
Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida and literary defacement
James Simpson

. 2 For translations of these texts, see The Chronicles of Dictys of Crete and Dares the Phrygian , trans. R. M. Frazer (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1966). 3 For the whole later medieval tradition, see C. D. Benson, The History of Troy in Middle English Literature: Guido delle

in Love, history and emotion in Chaucer and Shakespeare
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Transporting Chaucer
Helen Barr

. Spurgeon, Five Hundred Years of Chaucer Criticism and Allusion, 1357–1900 (New York: Russell & Russell, 1960), 2 vols; D. S. Brewer (ed.), Chaucer and Chaucerians: Critical Studies in Middle English Literature (London: Nelson, 1970); Alice S. Miskimin, The Renaissance Chaucer (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975); Ann Thompson, Shakespeare’s Chaucer: A Study in Literary Origins (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1978); E. Talbot Donaldson, The Swan at the Well: Shakespeare Reading Chaucer (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1985); Seth Lerer, Chaucer

in Transporting Chaucer
Palm Sunday processions
Eyal Poleg

-creating the Gospel narrative. Palm Sunday was widely depicted on church walls and lavish manuscripts; its texts reverberated in Middle English literature; and its performance was re-created in civic processions. What makes the day even more significant for the study of biblical mediation is the fact that this memorable biblical story does not lend itself easily to liturgical re-enactment. Liturgical processions were made to emulate Christ’s reception at the outskirts of Second-Temple Jerusalem in the towns and villages of medieval Europe. Transforming the biblical event

in Approaching the Bible in medieval England
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Sounding The House of Fame in Troilus and Cressida
Helen Barr

bursts out of ‘his foule trumpes ende’ (1646): Blak, bloo, grenyssh, swartish red, As doth where that men melte led, Loo, al on high fro the tuel … And hyt stank as the pit of helle. Allas, thus was her shame yronge, And gilteles, on every tonge. (1647–56) Thus are the praiseworthy heralded. Military cannonfire sounds suburban smelting; a trumpet rings out shame on every tongue. Sonic distinction is confounded further by the conflation of the Last Judgement wake-up call with what must surely rank as the stinkiest fart in all Middle English literature.107 A set

in Transporting Chaucer
Textus and oath-books
Eyal Poleg

oath-book becomes even more complex as we note that the church of Mere was one of the few to possess a Gospel book, described as old and worn (‘item liber evangeliorum vetus et attritus’). The connection between this oath-book and the text of the Gospels cannot therefore be taken for granted. Evidence of oath-books is rare, leaving one to wonder how to reconcile references for Gospel books, the liber of courtrooms and the missals and breviaries recalled in Middle English literature. Thirteenth- and fourteenth-century oath-books would have

in Approaching the Bible in medieval England
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Helen Barr

between lovers and between parents and their children.33 It is, perhaps, because the hand is such a powerful agent, so indispensable to human action, that its value is so troublesome to calibrate. Trouble for taxonomists, however, creates opportunity for literary writers. Before turning to Chaucer’s manipulation of the unruly discursiveness of the hand, in part as a prefatory contrast to that work, I want to conclude this section with some of the most hauntingly sublime moments in all Middle English literature. In each, the touch of a hand, a hand that could be capable

in Transporting Chaucer
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Deborah Youngs

nine; the French used enfant for boys under twelve and girls under seven. In Middle English literature, the words ‘child’ and, to a lesser extent, ‘infant’ were in widespread use by the late fourteenth century. While both could have a general use, like the modern-day ‘girl’ or ‘kid’, they were more specifically applied to cover the ages up to puberty, with ‘infaunt’ becoming used in the fifteenth

in The life–cycle in Western Europe, c.1300-c.1500