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Shakespeare in production at the Citizens’ Theatre, Glasgow, 1970–74
Adrienne Scullion

especially during the 1970s when all these examples were staged, was a theatre of distinctive aesthetic innovation and theatrical daring, and underline the company’s reputation as a unique and remarkable element of late twentieth-century Scottish theatre culture. This chapter will describe and debate the innovative and controversial productions of Shakespeare’s plays by the Citizens

in Shakespeare and Scotland
Opportunity or exile?
Author: Marjory Harper

Emigration from Scotland has always been very high. However, emigration from Scotland between the wars surpassed all records; more people emigrated than were born, leading to an overall population decline. This book examines emigration in the years between the two world wars of the twentieth century. Although personal persuasion remained the key factor in stimulating emigration, professional and semi-professional agents also played a vital part in generating and directing the exodus between the wars. Throughout and beyond the nineteenth century Scottish emigration was, in the public mind and public print, largely synonymous with an unwilling exodus from the highlands and islands. The book investigates the extent to which attitudes towards state-aided colonization from the highlands in the 1920s were shaped by the earlier experiences of highlanders and governments alike. It lays particular emphasis on changing and continuing perceptions of overseas settlement, the influence of agents and disparities between expectations and experiences. The book presents a survey of the exodus from lowland Scotland's fishing, farming and urbanindustrial communities that evaluates the validity of negative claims about the emigrants' motives vis-a-vis the well-publicized inducements offered through both official and informal channels. It scrutinizes the emigrants' expectations and experiences of continuity and change against the backdrop of over a century of large-scale emigration and, more specifically, of new initiatives spawned by the Empire Settlement Act. Barnardo's Homes was the first organization to resume migration work after the war, and the Canadian government supervision was extended from poor-law children to all unaccompanied juvenile migrants.

Eve Hepburn

3446 Using Europe 16/4/10 12:12 Page 53 3 Scottish party responses to Europe and devolution Introduction In the last 30 years, European integration has presented a new set of political challenges and opportunities for the exercise of Scottish self-determination. Yet the issue of constitutional change has been a constant fixture in Scottish politics since the turn of the twentieth century. The involvement of Scotland’s parties in issues of autonomy and the defence of Scottish interests has reflected an important territorial dimension to Scottish politics

in Using Europe
Author: Alec Ryrie

This book is about one of the most extraordinary national transformations in European history. During 1559 and 1560, the kingdom of Scotland experienced what was arguably the first modern revolution. The book aims to present a new synthesis of ideas on the origins of the Scottish Reformation, building on the recent scholarship but also suggesting some new directions. It asks not only why the Scottish Reformation took place, but why this Reformation took place, rather than one of the many other 'Reformations' - and, indeed, counter-Reformations - that seemed possible in sixteenth-century Scotland. It tries to reconnect religion and politics, and to trace their interaction. In particular, it emphasises how acts or threats of violence drove political processes and shaped religious culture. Violence isolated moderates and aggravated division. Sometimes it discredited those who applied it. Equally often, it managed to destroy its targets, and those who refused to use violence were outmanoeuvred. As such this is a tale of few villains and fewer heroes. The book also tries to place the Scottish Reformation on the wider stage of the European Reformation. Despite the nationalism of the traditional accounts, and of much Scottish history in general, the Reformation's natural stage was all Europe. The Scottish Reformation can be illuminated by international comparisons, and it was itself an international phenomenon. Religious developments in England and France, in particular, were a decisive influence on Scottish events.

Angela McCarthy

Between 1815 and 1930, central and western Europe experienced unprecedented mobility with an estimated 60 million people leaving for overseas shores. 1 Among those leading the charge, per head of population, were Ireland and Scotland. Indeed, throughout the nineteenth century Ireland consistently topped the league table of emigration from Europe while Scotland did so in the inter-war period. 2

in Scottishness and Irishness in New Zealand since 1840
James Mitchell

3303 Devolution 31/3/09 08:42 Page 111 6 The settled will of the Scottish people There shall be a Scottish parliament. (Opening clause of the Scotland Act, 1998) Introduction At Labour’s Scottish conference in March 1994, Labour leader John Smith declared that a Scottish Parliament was the ‘settled will of the Scottish people’ and would be the ‘cornerstone of our plans for democratic renewal’ in Britain (Scotsman, 12 March 1994). Smith died two months later. His declaration that a parliament was Scotland’s ‘settled will’ became a rallying cry for home

in Devolution in the UK
Stephen Howe

Few spots in Scotland carry such an emotional and historical charge as does the Lake of Menteith in Perthshire. On an island in the lake (which is reportedly the only place in the country to bear that name, rather than ‘loch’) stand the evocative ruins of the thirteenth-century Augustinian Inchmahome Priory. Robert the Bruce knew this place, as

in Scotland, empire and decolonisation in the twentieth century
Alan Convery

5 Comparing party change in Scotland and Wales I mean, the Welsh party has no autonomy at all. They have a bunch of volunteers who sit down called the Welsh Board who have no power at all; everything is decided in London. However, what they have been able to do through very good communication is create a strategy and develop a theme of Welsh autonomy and Welsh decision-making and that is the key thing we have needed to learn. (Interview with Scottish official 4, 30 November 2012) We used to have quite a bit initially [contact with Scottish Conservatives]. And

in The territorial Conservative Party
Jane Ohlmeyer

2 • ‘Scottish peers’ in seventeenth-century Ireland jane ohlmeyer In 1625 when James VI and I, the Scottish king and sovereign of Great Britain and Ireland, died, six Scots held titles in the Irish peerage. There was one earl, two viscounts and three barons.1 On the accession in 1685 of his son, James VII and II, there were five (three earls, a viscount and a baron). Forfeitures after 1690 reduced this number to three. The ‘Scottish peers’, 28 men spanning several generations, represented a small but distinctive group within the resident Irish peerage which in

in The Scots in early Stuart Ireland
Edward Legon

Chapter 6 Seditious memories in Scotland and Ireland T he wars and revolutions of the mid seventeenth century were British phenomena.1 The composite monarchy that Charles I inherited from his father meant that rebellion by Presbyterians in Scotland in 1637 and by Roman Catholics in Ireland four years later sent destructive shockwaves towards England. Ironically, experiences of the ensuing conquest by English ‘usurpers’ in the late 1640s and 1650s ensured that it was in Irish and Scottish soil that the seeds of Restoration were sown. The mnemonic landscapes

in Revolution remembered