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Counter-terrorism as insecurity
Emeka Thaddues Njoku and Scott N. Romaniuk

The post-9/11 counter-terrorism policy facilitated a rising global backlash on civil society organizations (CSOs), which is precariously transforming the structure and character of CSOs. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the subsequent establishment of counter-terrorism measures (CTMs), scholarship has been directed at the impact of these policies on human rights and

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
A ‘new’ and ‘evolving’ threat to the European Union
Christopher Baker-Beall

3 Constructing the ‘terrorist’ other: a ‘new’ and ‘evolving’ threat to the European Union Introduction This chapter builds on the genealogy of the European Union’s (EU) terrorism as threat discourse that was conducted in Chapter 2, attempting to extend our understanding of the way in which the ‘fight against terrorism’ has been constructed. It does this by analysing four of the discourse strands in a detailed and thematic manner. This is done for four reasons. First, to explore how the four discourse strands contribute to a specific EU understanding of the threat

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
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The impact of security policy on civil society in the United States
William A. Taylor

Introduction This chapter explores the critical relationship between counter-terrorism policy and civil society in the United States, which is a contested arena in which counter-terrorism policy has impacted civil society and vice versa. There exists extensive literature on securitization, which provides the theoretical framework within which this

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
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The ‘fight against terrorism’ discourse and the EU’s emerging role as a holistic security actor
Christopher Baker-Beall

Conclusion: the ‘fight against terrorism’ discourse and the EU’s emerging role as a holistic security actor Introduction The reason that I undertook this study was to make the argument that an in-depth analysis of the language of European Union (EU) counter-terrorism policy, the ‘fight against terrorism’, is essential if we are to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the processes through which security practices at the European level are made possible. In doing so I have sought to draw attention to the important role that the concept of identity plays in

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
Tensions between democracy and homeland security
Aries A. Arugay

2001, the Philippines became a frontline state in the fight against terrorism in Southeast Asia (Radics, 2004 ). Multiple bombings in urban areas as well as in Mindanao caused the government to take terrorism seriously as a homeland security threat. The links between al-Qaeda and local secessionist movements such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) became so obvious

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
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State terrorism, deceptive organisation and proxy
Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

! José Amedo Foucé, former Police superintendent, 2018 Terrorism has, in the past three decades or so, become the focus for much innovative work across social sciences. Having long been considered a topic of little academic moment, terrorism has become an issue of major scholarly concern. The outcome has been a sudden and massive increase in the quality and quantity of work conducted in the field, very much characterised by sharp differences of emphasis and interpretations, reflecting the varying disciplinary backgrounds and

in Counter-terror by proxy
From armed conflict to Brexit
Author: Eamonn O'Kane

The peace process in Northern Ireland has been widely praised for resolving the longest running post-war conflict in Europe. However, there is often misunderstanding about what happened in Northern Ireland and why. Drawing on a wide range of sources, this book offers an analysis of the origin, development and outcome of the peace process. It argues that the changes that Northern Ireland experienced from the early 1990s can only be understood if they are examined in the context of the time in which they occurred. It challenges some of the criticisms of the peace process that have emerged in recent years and argues these are based on either a misunderstanding of the purpose of the process or on information that was not available to the main actors at the time. The peace process was primarily an attempt to persuade those groups using violence to abandon their armed campaigns, rather than a specific attempt to create a fairer or more just society. The question became how this could be achieved and at what cost? The book charts and explains the ongoing challenges faced by Northern Ireland as it seeks to transition from a conflict to a post-conflict society. It highlights the lack of trust that has been a continuing and, at times, debilitating feature of the region’s politics since 1998. It concludes by considering the extent to which Brexit offers a challenge that might undermine the progress that has been made during Northern Ireland’s ‘messy’ and unpredictable peace process.

Data and measurement
Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

2 The logic of our approach: data and measurement Our interest is in the study of terrorism as it is used in the context of warfare. Our main concerns lie in understanding the role terrorism has played in warfare and whether the role of terrorism in twenty-first century warfare has changed from previous eras to today and, if it has, in what ways? We investigate terrorism’s role in warfare through an analysis of the timing of terrorist attacks during wider-scale warfare and the outcomes of these wars as regards the groups using terrorism. In the process, we seek

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Security politics and British civil society
Joshua Skoczylis and Sam Andrews

Organized crime and terrorism undermine stable and predictable socio-economic and political conditions. A core function of the state is to protect its citizens and institutions. Indeed, the state should be empowered to act in the defense of its interests (Walker, 2009 ). An important aspect of the state’s safeguarding function is protection and

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
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Michael J. Boyle

Rethinking terrorism and counterterrorism As the case studies in this volume have illustrated, there is no single ‘non-Western’ approach to terrorism. What emerges from the case studies is quite the opposite: a wide diversity of conceptualizations of the threat that are not always wholly in sync with the depictions of the threat favoured by the United States and its allies. To be certain, there are points of agreement. All Western and non-Western countries agree that terrorism is a formidable challenge to the authority of the state and that it

in Non-Western responses to terrorism