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Anne Wohlcke

5 Locating the fair sex at work1 He. Town Follies and Collies, and Mollys and Dollys,   for ever adieu and for ever. She. And Beaus that in Boxes; Lie smuggling their Doxeys,   With Wigs that hang down to their Bums. From ‘The Country Dialogue’ T ‘ he Country Dialogue’ appeared in a 1714 book of ‘the newest playhouse songs’. The ballad featured a familiar narrative of a couple yearning to leave the noise and amenities of London for the simplicity of the country, to feast on nothing ‘but what we do breed, and wear on our Backs, The Wool of our Flocks’. The

in The ‘perpetual fair’
Brian Elliott

class. While there was strenuous and sometimes dramatic popular opposition to this shift, Thatcherite policy also worked because it genuinely tapped into established working-class habits of mind. As Hoggart’s ( 2009 ) analysis recounts, British working-class communities were prone to resent any sense of dependency on institutionalized assistance. Getting by using only one’s own means and efforts was generally seen as a marker of social respectability. But this ethic of self-sufficiency did not rule out an equally important sense of group solidarity. This latter

in The roots of populism
The Central Sphagnum Depot for Ireland at the Royal College of Science for Ireland, 1915–19
Clara Cullen

effort. This chapter provides an example of how voluntary work was organised on the domestic front in Ireland from August 1914 to meet the increasing demands of war, focusing on one specific initiative – the work of the Voluntary Aid Detachments (VADs) 1 in the Royal College of Science for Ireland in organising the collection, treatment and delivery of Sphagnum moss as an alternative medical

in Medicine, health and Irish experiences of conflict 1914–45
A continuity in lifestyle
Brad Beaven

5 Male youth, work and leisure, 1918–39: a continuity in lifestyle T he interwar period witnessed a shift in attitudes towards the longstanding ‘problem’ of male youth leisure. As with the Victorian period, working-class youths were regarded with suspicion by the authorities, who worried that the latest degenerate leisure craze could result in tomorrow’s national failing. However, the difference from the Victorian era lay in the methodologies employed to investigate male youth behaviour. For the first time, thanks to new research emanating from the United

in Leisure, citizenship and working-class men in Britain, 1850–1945
The policies of professionalisation in English mental hospitals from 1919 to 1959
John Hall

15 From work and occupation to occupational therapy: The policies of professionalisation in English mental hospitals from 1919 to 1959 John Hall From the early nineteenth century, some form of regular and meaningful occupation for patients in English mental hospitals had been seen as central to their management, for at least three reasons: first, as a continuing legacy of the humanitarian ideals of moral treatment; second, since a pattern of regular daily activity was seen as conducive to less disturbed behaviour (not necessarily as therapeutic); and, third, as

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Robert Chernomas, Ian Hudson, and Mark Hudson

“You work three jobs? … Uniquely American, isn't it? I mean, that is fantastic that you're doing that.” President George W. Bush to a divorced mother of three in Omaha, Nebraska, in 2005. (Bush, 2005 , p. 152) Fran Marion, an African American woman with two children, works at a Popeyes fast food franchise in Kansas City, Missouri (Rushe, 2017 ). Her tale makes for sobering reading, and is all-too common an experience for the workers in the United States

in Neoliberal lives
Lea M. Williams

almost a year. The Paris to which La Motte returned in October 1914 was much changed from what it had been when she set up her residence there in September 1913. 3 La Motte too had undergone a transformation in her focus and interests. Having completed her last report on militant suffragettes in London for the Sun , La Motte moved to Paris, where she determined to write her first book, published in 1915, the culmination of her professional nursing work, The Tuberculosis Nurse . This well-known subject matter

in Ellen N. La Motte
Rebellion and repression in Italy, 1972–77
Author: Phil Edwards

In the mid-1970s, a wave of contentious radicalism swept through Italy. Groups and movements such as ‘Proletarian youth’, ‘metropolitan Indians’ and ‘the area of Autonomy’ practised new forms of activism, which were confrontational and often violent. Creative and brutal, intransigent and playful, the movements flourished briefly before being suppressed through heavy policing and political exclusion. This is a full-length study of these movements. Building on Sidney Tarrow's ‘cycle of contention’ model and drawing on a wide range of Italian materials, it tells the story of a unique group of political movements, and of their disastrous engagement with the mainstream Left. As well as shedding light on a neglected period of twentieth century history, this book offers lessons for understanding today's contentious movements (‘No Global’, ‘Black Bloc’) and today's ‘armed struggle’ groups.

Race and settler colonialism in Southern Rhodesia, 1919–79

This book explores the class experiences of white workers in Southern Rhodesia. Interest in white identity, power and privilege has grown since struggles over white land ownership in Zimbabwe in the early 2000s, yet research has predominately focused on middle-class and rural whites. By critically building upon whiteness literature developed in the United States and synthesising theories of race, class and gender within a critical Marxist framework, this book considers the ways in which racial supremacy and white identity were forged and contested by lower-class whites. It demonstrates how settler anxieties over hegemonic notions of white femininity and masculinity, white poverty, Coloureds, Africans and ‘undesirable’ non-British whites were rooted in class experience and significantly contributed to dominant white worker political ideologies and self-understandings.

Based on original research conducted in the United Kingdom, South Africa and Zimbabwe, this book also explores how white workers used notions of ‘white work’ and white ‘standards of living’ to mark out racial boundaries. In doing so the author demonstrates how the worlds of work were embedded in the production of social identities and structural inequalities as well as how class interacted and intersected with other identities and oppressions. This book will be of interest to undergraduates and academics of gender, labour, race and class in African and imperial and colonial history, the history of emotions and settler colonial studies.

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Art in the distributed field and systems of production
Johanna Drucker

Contemporary artists are taking advantage of digital platforms to create works in what we can call a ‘distributed field’ of production. In some instances, their approaches follow older models of versioning and iteration. But in other cases, their projects explore contingencies specific to transmedia practices to produce a work that more closely

in Perspectives on contemporary printmaking