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Open Access (free)
Roger Southall

African countries bereft of institutions (effective political oppositions, a free media, functioning constitutions) capable of countering abuse of power and ensuring administrative accountability. On the other, the centrality of the state to 142 AREAS resource allocation had encouraged a concentration of political power that typically saw personalized regimes ruling by a mix of coercion and clientelism – the granting of rewards and favours to particular supporters irrespective of the laws and regulations concerning public conduct. Democratization in Africa: the

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Ross M. English

constantly changing. Until the mid-1970s, academics often wrote of an ‘imperial’ presidency, which placed the executive as the dominant branch of government, especially in matters of foreign policy. With the failure of the war in Vietnam and the resignation of President Nixon following the Watergate scandal, both of which highlighted abuses of power by the White House, Congress began to reassert its power not only to check the presidency, but also in terms of its legislative role. Today the struggle for dominance over the direction of the federal government is a much more

in The United States Congress
The spectacle of death and the aesthetics of crowd control
Emma Galbally and Conrad Brunström

political justice. If political executions are a form of theatre, then theatre itself lends itself to a readily politicised culture of spectacle. All Gothic theatre, and perhaps all theatre, concerns itself with the uses and abuses of power. The issue of how to accommodate yet sanitise spectacle can be explored by considering two lavish stage entertainments of the late 1790s: Aurelio

in The Gothic and death
Pascale Drouet

part will here shift to new dialectics: of passiveness and reactivity, and of speed and slowness. In both King Richard II and Coriolanus , the dynamic of riposte is a response to a denial of territory that results from (or is experienced as resulting from) injustice and abuse of power; it takes the specific form of illegal return from banishment and, whether motivated by restitution or retribution, it raises the issues of

in Shakespeare and the denial of territory
Alastair J. Reid

’ basic observation of the tendency towards oligarchy even in progressive, popular organisations without accepting his own pessimistic conclusion that it could not be made democratically accountable. Actually, even he noted that trade union leaders were less prone to the worst abuses of power than politicians. For since unions were less diverse than national parties their leaders retained more in common with their members, and since the officials were involved in an economic organisation they needed high levels of administrative ability and technical knowledge. Trade

in The tide of democracy
Caitriona Clear

command structure and elected its own officers by secret ballot for three-year terms of office. Nuns in managerial roles controlled large sums of money, employed ancillary staff and negotiated with the civil authorities quite regularly. Examples of the arbitrary abuse of power by clergy and bishops over convents are legion,13 but this should not blind us to the fact that nuns, whether they won or lost, were contenders for ecclesiastical power, a point convincingly argued by Mary Peckham Magray.14 For increasing numbers of Irish Catholics in the period under discussion

in Irish Catholic identities
Marco Barducci

Pride’s Purge. The first knotty problem to be solved was that touching the duty to pay taxes to ‘an usurping or unjust party’ for warfare funding. By addressing those in the country who opposed the Parliament’s abuse of power, Ascham reminded that when ‘a man is fully possest by an unjust invading power’, and those to whom ( viz the Royalist party) ‘we acknowledge our lawfull

in Order and conflict
Abstract only
Katherine Fierlbeck

‘democracy’ if in fact there is no good evidence that the regime has been chosen by a relative majority of the population, or that a certain segment of the population suffers directly and grievously from policies enacted by the state. It would be simple to make minority rights a condition of being considered a ‘democratic’ state. And, in fact, to stem the political abuse of power perpetuated by the ever

in Globalizing democracy
A historical survey
Andreas Osiander

subject of other chapters in this book, the chapter would not be complete without at least a brief look at the period since the end of the First World War. This saw the most egregious abuse of power on the part of Nazi Germany and then a new Germany, the Federal Republic, resolutely turning its back on anything that might look like an open, let alone self-seeking exercise of power and clinging to this attitude even after the reunification of Germany in 1989. Germany and its princes in the ancien régime It may serve our purpose best if we assume ‘power’ to mean

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
Open Access (free)
Thefts, violence and sexual threats
Jenny DiPlacidi

incestuous desires. The uncle, in stealing from the older brother, takes not just his property but his daughter, laying claim to Matilda’s body as his own. Weimar’s shifting desires towards Matilda show that his position as her father has culminated in the ultimate betrayal of power but also that such abuses of power and incestuous desires are the natural result of the available familial, legal and marital

in Gothic incest