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How Can Humanitarian Analysis, Early Warning and Response Be Improved?
Aditya Sarkar, Benjamin J. Spatz, Alex de Waal, Christopher Newton, and Daniel Maxwell

( London : London School of Economics and Political Science ). Geneva Call ( 2021 ), Understanding Humanitarian Access and the Protection of Civilians in an Era of Depoliticized War ( Geneva : Geneva Call ), www.genevacall.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Geneva-Call-South-Sudan-Report-Final.pdf (accessed

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

of the Save the Children Fund “for a cause which it believes to be largely illusory and thoroughly inept”’ ( Record , 1921b : 83). The SCF thus advocated for using visual evidence: Yet we are content to hide our heads, ostrich-like, and thinking that because we will not see these things they do not exist, to pursue the even tenour of our way.… It is, in a very special sense, ‘eyes to the blind’ in this matter. With its emissaries scattered all over Europe and in Asia Minor, its central head quarters in Geneva and its well-informed information department, the IU

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

pictured people in the midst of various tasks suggestive of capability and willingness to actively better their own conditions. Hine was ascribing the term ‘refugee’ to numerous captions of the pictures he made in France during the war and on the Special Survey tour after the war. It is unknown what definition or guidance Hine relied on to make his determination as to who was a refugee or not, but his photographs – perhaps even in spite of himself – contributed to defining the term. The content and themes in Hine’s refugee-labeled photographs contain elements that are

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

competing interests. The salary of the first author is covered partially by UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) as part of the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF); Research for Health in Conflict in the Middle East and North Africa (R4HC-MENA) project, grant number ES/P010962/1. Authors’ Contributions Abdulkarim Ekzayez carried out the study design, conceptual framework, data analysis, literature search, first draft of the paper, multiple rounds of edits and produced the final manuscript. Ammar Sabouni contributed a substantial amount of content, added further

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Megan Daigle, Sarah Martin, and Henri Myrttinen

diverse and less militarised analysis of insecurity, as well as a more inclusive training model. Diversifying the security field to include more women, people of diverse SOGIESC, different nationalities and class backgrounds, and people with disabilities can help to deconstruct the predominant humanitarian security discourse. Drawing security trainers from the aid world itself or related fields, rather than from the military, could be another critical step. 44 In terms of content, a more

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

, S. ( 2011 ), Human Rights in Camera ( Chicago : The University of Chicago Press ). Smillie , I. ( 1985 ), The Land of Lost Content: A History of CUSO ( Toronto, ON : Deneau Publishers & Co. ). Smith , K. E. ( 2014

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Middle-Aged Syrian Women’s Contributions to Family Livelihoods during Protracted Displacement in Jordan
Dina Sidhva, Ann-Christin Zuntz, Ruba al Akash, Ayat Nashwan, and Areej Al-Majali

in Urban Syria ( Bloomington : Indiana University Press ). Save the Children ( 2014 ), Too Young to Wed – The Growing Problem of Child Marriage among Syrian Girls in Jordan , Save the Children , www.savethechildren.org.uk/content/dam/global/reports/education-and-child-protection/too-young-to-wed.pdf (accessed 11 October

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Understanding perceptions of Muslims in the news

This book considers how the coverage of Islam and Muslims in the press informs the thoughts and actions of non-Muslims. As media plays an important role in society, analysing its influence(s) on a person’s ideas and conceptualisations of people with another religious persuasion is important. News reports commonly feature stories discussing terrorism, violence, the lack of integration and compatibility, or other unwelcome or irrational behaviour by Muslims and Islam. Yet there is little research on how non-Muslims actually engage with, and are affected by, such reports. To address this gap, a content and discourse analysis of news stories was undertaken; verbal narratives or thoughts and actions of participants were then elicited using interviews and focus groups. The participant accounts point towards the normativity of news stories and their negotiated reception patterns. Individual orientations towards the media as an information source proved to be a significant factor behind the importance of news reports, with individually negotiated personal encounters with Muslims or Islam further affecting the meaning-making process. Participants negotiated media reports to fit their existing outlook on Islam and Muslims. This outlook was constructed through, and simultaneously supported by, news reports about Muslims and Islam. The findings suggest a co-dependency and co-productivity between news reports and participant responses. This research clearly shows that participant responses are (re)productions of local and personal contextuality, where the consequences of socially constructed depictions of Islam and Muslims engage rather than influence individual human thoughts and actions.

The presence of the book in prose fiction
Author: Glyn White

This book constructs a vocabulary for the literary study of graphic textual phenomena. It examines the typographic devices within a very particular context: that of the interpretation of prose fiction. The graphic surface of the page is a free two-dimensional space on which text appears either mechanically or consciously. As visual arrangements of printed text on the graphic surface, graphic devices can contribute to the process of reading, combining with the semantic content within the context which that text creates. The book first sets out to demonstrate both how and why the graphic surface has been neglected. It looks at the perception of the graphic surface during reading and how it may be obscured by other concerns or automatised until unnoticed. Then, the book examines some critical assumptions about the transformation of manuscript to novel and what our familiarity with the printed form of the book leads us to take for granted. It looks at theoretical approaches to the graphic surface, particularly those which see printed text as either an idealised sign-system or a representation of spoken language. The book further looks at how 'blindness' to the graphic surface, and particularly its mimetic usage, is reflected and perpetuated in literary criticism. It deals with the work of specific authors, their texts and the relevant critical background, before providing a concluding summary which touches on some of the implications of these analyses.

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A practical approach to working in multi-camera studios

This book is about producing video content with a multi-camera set-up. The principles apply whatever the form of distribution: digital network, Internet, mobile phone or 'other'. It is intended to be used alongside practical courses or modules, both in teaching institutions and in professional training environments. The book centres on Health and Safety in TV studios, which are potentially dangerous places. It gives a lot of key information about television studios and the people who work in them. The book focuses on exercises to practise some basic principles and shows how to build on these and develop proposals and projects. It goes into more detail on Drama, Music and Action, both in the context of student projects and in the professional world. The book explains detail of television aspect ratios; and a little about the meanings of Continuity. Since many multi-camera video productions use inserts shot on single camera, there are several references to single-camera shooting. The necessary elements in multi-camera production are: a vision mixer (switcher) for selecting the images to be recorded or transmitted; a Director co-ordinating the content; an assistant to keep track of timings and where the Director is in the script; and a Camera Operator for each camera, with a tally-light to show when the particular camera is on-shot.