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Miles Taylor

dividing against East Indies MPs who sought sugar cultivation in the ‘free-labourconditions of British India. And ‘newer’ colonies, such as the Caribbean islands annexed from France in 1815 – whose interests were not the same as those of Jamaica – or Lower Canada, were less impressed with the haphazard system of representation that the old plantation colonies and India merchants. Rejecting the idea of separate colonial representation in 1831, the Quebec Gazette declared that ‘Lower Canada has never condescended to buy a seat in the House of Commons.’26 Besides the

in Parliaments, nations and identities in Britain and Ireland, 1660–1850
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Labour, design and culture
Jesse Adams Stein

contexts in Western capitalist nations; a transition that has been well documented in sociology and social histories of technology.2 The introduction of computerised and automated technologies profoundly transformed the labour conditions and industrial politics in factory and office workplaces. In some cases, automation and computerisation made tasks less dangerous or physically taxing, but in many others, new technologies made employees’ hard-won trade skills redundant.3 Computerisation often reduced the number of employees required and it often degraded the workers

in Hot metal
Gender and the development of the co-operative business model in Britain
Rachael Vorberg-Rugh

teaching women about their own cocoas and jellies – and actually how to make them! – if they had equally authorised their production? Would credit have got into the movement if women had known that co-operation had been originated as an escape from its misery and degradation? Would there have been the necessity for a minimum wage campaign for the women workers if co-operative women had shared the control of co-operative labour conditions? And would there have been such pressing need for children’s guilds and circles had their mothers been imbued with co

in Mainstreaming co-operation
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The Co-operative Party during the 1930s
Angela Whitecross

) expressed the view that the measure, instead of leading to nationalisation, would lead away from it, criticising the measure on the grounds that it did not suggest any means of giving the workers the right to interfere when their labour conditions were affected. See Co-operative Party, Work at Westminster: Activities of the Co-operative MPs during the sessions of 1931 (Manchester: Co-operative Union, 1932), p. 5. 36 Co-operative Party Annual Conference Report (1934), p. 12. 37 Co-operative Congress Report (1932), p. 100. 38 Co-operative Party Executive Committee

in Mainstreaming co-operation
Open Access (free)
Geir Hønneland and Anne-Kristin Jørgensen

of health and minimisation of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards’ (International Atomic Energy Agency 1957, Article III.A.6). The development of practical international co-operation in nuclear safety began in the early 1960s and reached its present wide-ranging scale in the 1980s and 1990s after the accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island (Timerbaev and Iorysh 1999). The present IAEA regime on safe development of nuclear energy is based on a range of international

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
An investigation of the theoretical lineage to Giovanni Arrighi
Chikako Nakayama

came in. Polanyi warned that it would not be wise to transplant or graft the Japanese system of labour onto Lancashire, even if the productivity of the former should far surpass that of the latter (Polanyi, [1934] 2002b: 232–233).9 While Polanyi noted the great productivity of Japan, its imperviousness to crises, its backup system for labourers through the clan or the family-like organisation with some kind of collective consumption (Polanyi, [1934] 2002c: 239), he argued that Japanese labour conditions were embedded in their culture, ethics and civilisation and

in Karl Polanyi and twenty-first-century capitalism
Contested boundaries and new solidarities
Sílvia Bofill-Poch

crisis that began in 2008 and the return of almost the full burden of care to families impoverished by the crisis have only exacerbated this situation, making these female workers even more vulnerable. The new legislation from 2011 and 2012 aimed to improve the working conditions of domestic workers. However, research has shown that the financial crisis has undermined the legislation, supporting a moral economy in which families that have been forced to cut costs feel justified in violating the law and contributing to the poor wages and labour conditions of domestic

in Intimacy and mobility in an era of hardening borders
Escape lines
Diego Gaspar Celaya and Lennert Savenije

addition, the Außenministerium network was aimed at helping civilian forced labourers rather than Jews or Allied airmen. It was created by Dutch students to help other students to escape their enforced labour conditions and to go into hiding in their home country, although the network eventually also helped a few Dutch POWs to escape.50 As with some other escape lines, but in contrast to Dutch-Paris and Pat O’Leary, helpers and escapees generally shared the same nationality. It was more or less a foreign mission of a ‘national’ resistance organisation. The involvement of

in Fighters across frontiers
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The solitary odyssey of M. E. Harkness
Terry Elkiss

disenchantment with the labour movement’s methods and uneven achievements, as well as some of its socialist practitioners, was growing. Even her long-standing relationship with Potter was reaching a breaking point, in spite of the fact that Harkness was shortly to introduce her to Sidney Webb, the Fabian economist and Potter’s eventual spouse, at her flat across from the British Museum in January 1890.5 In the summer of 1890 Harkness travelled to Germany and Austria and began to report on labour conditions in these two countries, interviewing prominent socialists such as

in Margaret Harkness
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Recognition and regime change
Janet Clark

support came from a number of MPs as well as literary and political figures, including some of the founder members of the organisation such as Gerald Barry, Kingsley Martin, Ellen Wilkinson and Stafford Cripps.4 At the beginning of 1938 the NCCL organised a series of meetings in London to protest against labour conditions and the actions of the authorities in the West Indies. The speakers included Arthur Creech Jones MP whose article on ‘Civil Liberties in the Colonies’ was published in the spring 1938 edition of Civil Liberty.5 Kidd contributed to papers on academic

in The National Council for Civil Liberties and the policing of interwar politics