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Allyn Fives

mature work, cruelty cannot be justified in the name of such ‘noble’ ‘causes’: this rules out, as a matter of principle, paternalistic or perfectionist or educative politics, or, as Shklar puts it, an ‘educative government that aims at creating specific kinds of character and enforces its own beliefs’ (Shklar 1989a , pp. 32, 33). Hers is the party of memory, as we know, not the party of hope. As she makes clear, her sceptical critique of paternalistic reform owes a great debt to Ralph Waldo Emerson. For Shklar, Emerson ‘is defending democratic

in Judith Shklar and the liberalism of fear
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Allyn Fives

the public ends of the polity as a whole’ (Shklar 1976 , p. xiv). Freedom is not in conflict with genuine authority, therefore. Freedom, for Hegel, was a feature of the Athens of Pericles: indeed, the ‘Greeks are our sole memory of what freedom might be’ (Shklar 1976 , p. 58). Independence, in contrast, arises from ‘the restless demands of reason’, which asserts ‘the destructive force of individual autonomy’, a force that Hegel sees arising first with Socrates, and culminating in the French Revolution (Shklar 1976 , p. xiv). For Hegel, Athenian citizens were free

in Judith Shklar and the liberalism of fear
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For the love of God
Sal Renshaw

the divine. See in particular her chapter ‘The Sophia-God of Jesus and the Discipleship of Women’ from In Memory of Her (1983). 57 For a comprehensive study of the relationship between women, mysticism, and embodiment in the Middle Ages see Carolyn Walker Bynum’s Fragmentation and Redemption (1991). While Bynum acknowledges that a significant strand of medieval thought continued to promulgate the notion of the polluted, corrupt feminine body, there is evidence in female mysticism of a counterposition. Contrary to the tendency to consider the female body as having

in The subject of love
On the relation between law, politics, and other social systems in modern societies
Darrow Schecter

amenable to a far greater degree of horizontally structured social dynamics.22 Public will formation, in turn, embraces an extensive network of organisations and institutions featuring the mass media, the production and reception of art, schools and universities, the relations between scientific communities and non-​expert opinion, sport, religion, health, and the diverse dimensions of civil society. These include the culture of daily life, historical memory, and coming to terms with individual and collective trauma. In evaluating the extent to which law and politics

in Critical theory and sociological theory
Open Access (free)
A pluralist theory of citizenship
Rainer Bauböck

, continuity is generally more fragile in federations and unions with derivative citizenship than in unitary states. The threat of breakup might linger on as a historical memory of past conflicts or be a present fear that undermines trust and the willingness to collaborate. Under such conditions, secession or partition into independent states, as well as merger into a unitary democratic polity, imply the discontinuity of self-government of either the

in Democratic inclusion