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Nuclear themes in American culture, 1945 to the present
Paul Boyer

v 4 v Sixty years and counting: nuclear themes in American culture, 1945 to the present* Paul Boyer (†) In his 1978 autobiography, Arthur Koestler, author of the anti-Communist classic Darkness at Noon, wrote the following: ‘If I were asked to name the most important date in the history and prehistory of the human race, I would answer without hesitation 6 August 1945. The reason is simple. From the dawn of consciousness until 6 August 1945, man had to live with the prospect of his death as an individual; since the day when the first atomic bomb outshone the

in Understanding the imaginary war
James Johnson

How might AI-infused cyber capabilities be used to subvert, or otherwise compromise, the reliability, control, and use of states’ nuclear forces? This chapter argues that AI-enhanced cyber capabilities could increase the risk of inadvertent escalation caused by the co-mingling of nuclear and non-nuclear weapons, and the increasing speed of warfare. 1 It examines the potential implications of cyber (offensive and defensive) capabilities augmented with AI applications for nuclear security. The chapter finds

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
Abstract only
Debating Cold War anxieties in West Germany, 1945–90
Benjamin Ziemann

NATO in December 1979 to offer negotiations between the superpowers over the mutual reduction of intermediate-range nuclear missiles, but to deploy 572 US Pershing II and cruise atomic missiles in Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK in case these negotiations failed. In their collective obsession with the potential results of an all-out nuclear war, the angst-ridden people in West Germany were a crucial factor in the complicated negotiations that followed the dual-track decision. Richard Perle (who, as US undersecretary of defence from 1981 to 1987

in Understanding the imaginary war

Mrs Thatcher’s government was elected in May 1979 with a manifesto pledge to make significant increases in the level of defence spending: During the past five years the military threat to the West has grown steadily as the Communist bloc has established virtual parity in strategic nuclear weapons and a substantial superiority in conventional weapons … The SALT [Strategic Arms Limitations Talks] discussions increase the importance of ensuring the continuing effectiveness of

in Supreme emergency
US Air Forces’ strategic presence, 1946–64
Author: Ken Young

A history of the US nuclear presence in Britain from its origins in 1946 through to the run-down of strategic forces following the Cuba crisis and the coming of the missile age. The book deals with the initial negotiations over base rights, giving a detailed treatment of the informal and secret arrangements to establish an atomic strike capability on British soil. The subsequent build-up is described, with the development of an extensive base network and the introduction of new and more advanced types of bomber aircraft. Relations with the British during these developments are a central focus but tensions within the USAF are also dealt with. The book recounts the emergence of the UK as a nuclear power through prolonged negotiations with the US authorities. It deals in detail with the arrangements for RAF aircraft to carry US nuclear weapons, and the development of joint strike planning. A concluding chapter provides a critical assessment of the UK role in the Anglo-American nuclear alliance.

Drone swarming and hypersonic weapons
James Johnson

How might AI-augmented drone swarming and hypersonic weapons complicate missile defense, undermine states’ nuclear-deterrent forces, and increase the risk of escalation? 1 How might AI-augmented unmanned systems effect escalation, deterrence, and conflict management, when fewer human lives are perceived to be at risk? The proliferation of a broad range of AI-augmented autonomous weapon systems – most notably drones used in swarming tactics – might have significant strategic implications for nuclear

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
James Johnson

Will the use of AI in strategic decision-making be stabilizing or destabilizing? How might synthesizing AI with nuclear command, control, and communications (NC3) early warning systems impact the nuclear enterprise? 1 The compression of detection and decision-making timeframes associated with the computer revolution is not an entirely new phenomenon (see chapter 2 ). During the Cold War, the US and Soviet Union both automated their nuclear command-and-control, targeting, and early warning detection systems to

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
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The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, the Labour Party and civil defence in the 1980s
Jacquelyn Arnold

3 Protest and survive The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, the Labour Party and civil defence in the 1980s Jacquelyn Arnold Against the backdrop of increasing public anxiety surrounding the British ownership and potential use of nuclear weapons following three British nuclear tests in 1957, a group emerged to coordinate the anti-nuclear movement in Britain. The genesis and development of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) ran parallel with both the emergence of civil defence as a political concern in Britain and the question of unilateral nuclear

in Waiting for the revolution
Terry Macintyre

Chapter 6 Britain, Germany and the Non-Proliferation Treaty T hroughout the period from 1964 to 1970, an international agreement on measures that would prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, not least into the hands of Germany, was a prime foreign policy objective of the Labour governments. In this context, it is significant that the day before Harold Wilson entered Downing Street as the newly elected Prime Minister, the Chinese had ­ detonated their first nuclear weapon, a development that would be bound to cause regional anxieties, and might provoke

in Anglo-German relations during the Labour governments 1964–70

If the early leaders of Britain’s nuclear enterprise learned anything from the experience of the Second World War, it was that ‘total’ war could threaten the whole fabric of the state and society. The previous chapter suggests that the importance of maintaining a plausible position of moral authority was considered critical in keeping public morale engaged in the war effort, even if the enemy engaged in immoral attacks on the British population. This moral authority was directly linked to the strategies to be used

in Supreme emergency