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Cheshire on the eve of civil war
Authors: Richard Cust and Peter Lake

This book aims to revisit the county study as a way into understanding the dynamics of the English civil war during the 1640s. It explores gentry culture and the extent to which early Stuart Cheshire could be said to be a ‘county community’. It investigates the responses of the county’s governing elite and puritan religious establishment to highly polarising interventions by the central government and Laudian ecclesiastical authorities during Charles I’s Personal Rule. The second half of the book provides a rich and detailed analysis of the petitioning movements and side-taking in Cheshire during 1641-42. This important contribution to understanding the local origins and outbreak of civil war in England will be of interest to all students and scholars studying the English Revolution.

Privacy, liability and interception
Christopher T. Marsden

European customers’ content under the Electronic Commerce Directive (EC/2000/31) (ECD) so long as they have no actual or constructive knowledge of that content: if they ‘hear no evil, see no evil and speak no evil.’ 3 Regulators have also been acting as ‘three wise monkeys’ in ignoring evidence that net neutrality is being compromised by IAP decisions to block, throttle and otherwise censor

in Network neutrality
Mike Buckle and John Thompson

with guidelines for its implementation. The second level is where the technical detail is prepared. In the third level national regulators coordinate the regulations with other nations. The fourth level is concerned with the compliance and enforcement of the new law. Consequently, for the most recent directives we are able only to comment on the general principles, as the detail

in The UK financial system (fifth edition)
Open Access (free)
Neutrality, discrimination and common carriage
Christopher T. Marsden

zombie 2 that has sprung to life recently. It is a policy of Internet 3 non-discrimination based on innovation, free speech, privacy and content provider commercial self-interest, imposed on the technocratic economic regulation of telecommunications (telco) local access networks. The regulators, telcos and governments don’t like it one bit. The laws and regulations are formally ‘Open Internet’ not

in Network neutrality
Mike Buckle and John Thompson

responsible for detailed rule setting, policy coordination and coordination of supervision of the individual firms within their respective industries. Their relationship to national regulators is interesting. They have the right to issue guidelines and make recommendations to local supervisors and, in the event of these being ignored, they can ask the European Commission to issue

in The UK financial system (fifth edition)
Oonagh McDonald

based on separate functions for each financial institution, a system which no longer corresponded with reality. Financial institutions, especially A decade of deregulation?13 banks and insurance companies, provided a much wider range of financial services to their clients. The result was that, all too often, they were dealing with more than one regulator, having to meet the requirements of each. The SIB’s lack of powers over the SROs made the system unworkable at times. The Banking Act 1987 Yet another scandal in the banking sector led to the strengthening of

in Holding bankers to account
Oonagh McDonald

Chapter 10 Holding senior bankers to account As the fines imposed on banks for their part in the manipulation of LIBOR, the foreign exchange market and the Gold and Silver Fixes have mounted up, the question posed by the public both in the UK and in the USA is: why have so few senior bankers gone to jail? The public saw a handful of traders tried and jailed (and sometimes set free on appeal) and a few senior bankers resigned or were asked to resign, while retaining comfortable pensions and even bonuses. The UK and EU regulators considered that reforming the

in Holding bankers to account
British policy integration
Shizuka Oshitani

promote energy efficiency, but also the proposed market design would give the privatised companies an incentive to sell more electricity. Intense lobbying was begun by environmental groups, led by the FOE and the ACE, to have the bill place environmental duties on the regulator, the Energy Secretary and the privatised companies. The government was also urged by the House of Commons Energy Select Committee to take energy efficiency more seriously and to introduce in the privatisation proposal a regulatory mechanism to encourage electricity companies to invest in energy

in Global warming policy in Japan and Britain
Victoria Stiles

This chapter draws on research focusing on the less spectacular, more subtle methods of control over the book market which were exercised by institutions operating within Nazi Germany. The aim is not to undermine the utility of this particular historical context as an example in free speech debates, but to widen the scope for more nuanced comparisons. Due to the number of institutions involved, the complexity of the market for new and second-hand books in Germany, and the need to preserve the impression of intellectual and consumer freedom, top-down methods of censorship could not have been expected to have a transformative effect on German reading habits. These could only work alongside methods to create more discerning readers, who, it was hoped, would assemble home libraries of ‘recommended’ material and could be trained to approach unsanctioned voices in a distanced and critical manner. Various contextualising mechanisms arose within new writing and marketing material, while the pre-existing filtering processes of publishers, booksellers and regulators became rapidly coordinated; whether this took place through deliberate collusion or semi-independently, the censorious effects were profound. These filtering and contextualisation processes – and the appeals to intellectual rigour and bias-correction that accompanied them – have clear parallels with modern-day concerns around how audiences are guided towards ‘related’ material by content providers, how ‘outsider’ voices can be packaged in a way that strips them of their cultural and intellectual capital, and how certain perspectives can be consistently excluded from the ‘marketplace of ideas’ even when no centralised control is being exercised.

in The free speech wars
Friends or foes?
Roberto Baldoli and Claudio M. Radaelli

and more generally evidence-based approaches to decision-making establish both rights and obligations: obligations for the regulators or lawmakers, and rights for those affected groups, professions and citizens who want to make their voices heard, and have the right to know about the empirical foundations of a regulatory proposal. The normative stance (i.e. what ought to happen, not necessarily what happens) of impact assessment is the following: in the absence of evidence and the possibility of discussing and criticising it, there is no social authorisation for

in The freedom of scientific research