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Raymond Gillespie

, such as historical or legal works were certainly more common in the great house than in the countryside, and wealth meant that a larger library could be afforded by the upper social classes. Lending and borrowing might go some way to close 179 MUP/Gillespie_07_Ch7 179 15/3/05, 8:35 am The strategies of reading this gap and the sociability associated with print, such as the coffee houses discussed in Chapter 1, helped to ensure that print was widely diffused. To some extent what one read was determined by one’s point in the life cycle as much as by economic

in Reading Ireland
John M. MacKenzie

and Edwardian periods such literature was usually produced by middle-class writers and illustrates their desire to ally themselves with the ideals of the social class above them. It is not surprising, then, that natural history and the hunting ethic should be prominent in the worlds of the authors who sought to satisfy the rapidly expanding juvenile market in Victorian times. The natural world, particularly the

in Imperialism and juvenile literature
David Killingray

followers. The majority of European officers in colonial armies were professional soldiers drawn for the most part from the middle and upper classes. Social class separated them from the few European NCOs and they used separate messes and clubs. White officers were a class apart from ordinary Europeans and an assurance of their social and racial superiority cut a deep cultural chasm between them and all but a

in Guardians of empire
Socio-cultural considerations of intellectual disability
Irina Metzler

? Stereotypes of social class, especially alleged rusticity, also abounded in connection with ID. The medieval peasant often was an object of contempt and derision to his contemporaries, described as rough, dirty, boorish and foolish. One may note here the image of the ‘stupid’ peasant, referring to the entire class of peasants, not just individuals, as being mentally less able than their social superiors. ‘Peasants were supposed to be stupid, an enduring image of the countryman common across boundaries and time.’ 104 Boorish , of course, is the adjective pertaining to the

in Fools and idiots?
Brutishness, discrimination and the lower-class wolf-man from The Wolf Man to True Blood
Victoria Amador

, foreigners – who must be dispatched to restored order; they can never assimilate. That social class shift in the werewolf persona, from gentleman victim to low-status monster, has continued in many popular media depictions of the creature ever since The Wolf Man . This chapter will explore this lesser position of the werewolf by first briefly examining that seminal film. Then, in an effort to contextualise the personification of the werewolf as la bête rather than a beauty, I draw briefly on texts from the seventeenth century through the Victorian

in In the company of wolves
Clement Masakure

colonial Zimbabwe, and the quality of healthcare differed according to race, social class and region. Infant mortality among white Zimbabweans was around 17 per thousand while in rural areas, where the majority of Africans lived, the rate was as high as 200–300 per thousand. 3 Differences also existed among Africans. Infants born in urban areas had better chances of living through childhood than rural infants. As Samuel T. Agere noted, for every 1,000 babies born in Mufakose, an African suburb in the capital of Harare, twenty-one died in the first year of their birth

in African nurses and everyday work in twentieth-century Zimbabwe
Abstract only
Megan Smitley

, it was also a site of political participation and social activism. Female associationalism was a central site of women’s public participation, and the causes of temperance, suffrage and Liberalism were significant for incorporating women into public debate and electoral politics. A belief in the social and moral importance of the maternal and domestic was integral to middle-class women’s culture, and the women’s temperance movement illustrates the importance of gender and social class to the feminine public sphere. Female temperance reform responded to middle

in The feminine public sphere
Jonathan Rayner

subsequent analyses, in terms of the particular characteristics of scripting, casting and shooting displayed by films made during and portraying Britain’s war. The documentary and propagandist emphases result in distinctive national modifiers to the accepted conventions of the war film. In British wartime filmmaking, the recognition of differences across social classes, the incorporation of regional diversity in national representation, and the informative worth of factual images encapsulate the judicious assimilation of documentary materials and meanings within feature

in The naval war film
Agricultural science and education
Ian Miller

nutrition, proponents of scientific food production consistently framed their ideas in terms of national advancement. They achieved this by firmly distinguishing between what was old and new, traditional and modern, and regressive and progressive. In the 1850s, agricultural science was institutionalised via a state-supported network of agricultural schools and model farms aimed at all social classes. Ultimately, however, small farmers exhibited resistance and apathy towards these educational schemes for an assortment of social, political and practical reasons, a factor

in Reforming food in post-Famine Ireland
Orian Brook, Dave O’Brien, and Mark Taylor

and so I’d be, in terms of books and reading and stories that was around from the word go. My mum was very, very keen that I read. At this point we can begin to introduce the importance of social class differences in the comparison between Farida and Camille. Camille’s mother was not initially interested in classical music. Just like Tasha told us at the start of the chapter, Camille’s mother responded to her daughter’s cultural interests. As her daughter showed aptitude and interest, Camille’s mother was not only encouraging but also invested considerable

in Culture is bad for you