registration cards they get and where they are sent next; it has been in use since the 1960s. However, measuring and comparing bodily dimensions is a centuries-old practice, which became commonplace in the nineteenth century, when anthropologists focused on the physical features of human groups, (anthropometry) on the assumption that the body can divulge a wide range of important information. By examining physical shape and comparing this to a standard normal distribution
emphasise that the 4Ps act as one part of an overall business strategy. Without the strategy that articulates the intent, business structure and plan, the 4Ps become simply another process activity to perform. By contrast, the meaning and use of innovation within the private sector evolved over decades, and research studies began emerging as a separate field in the 1960s ( Fagerberg, 2004 ). An early definition from the private sector described innovation as the ‘generation
, opportunities for Syrian women to work (outside the home) have grown and shrunk repeatedly over the last decades ( Rabo, 1996 , 2008 ; Lei Sparre, 2008 ; Alsaba and Kapilashrami, 2016 ). ‘State feminism’ ( Rabo, 1996 : 157) was an ideological tenet of the Ba’th Party’s attempt at overcoming social and ethnic differences in the new Syrian nation from the 1960s. Women’s role as ‘symbols of the nation’s development and modernization’ ( Lei Sparre, 2008
This book explores the history of the spy and conspiracy genres on British television, from 1960s Cold War series through 1980s conspiracy dramas to contemporary 'war on terror' thrillers. It analyses classic dramas including Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, Edge of Darkness, A Very British Coup and Spooks. The analysis is framed by the notion that the on-screen depiction of intelligence services in such programmes can be interpreted as providing metaphors for broadcasting institutions. Initially, the book is primarily focused on espionage-themed programmes produced by regional franchise-holders for ITV in late 1960s and 1970s. Subsequently, it considers spy series to explore how many standard generic conventions were innovated and popularised. The relatively economical productions such as Bird of Prey demonstrated a more sophisticated treatment of genre conventions, articulated through narratives showing the collapse of standard procedure. Channel 4 was Britain's third and final broadcaster to be enshrined with a public service remit. As the most iconic version of the television spy drama in the 1960s, the ITC adventure series, along with ABC's The Avengers, fully embraced the formulaic and Fordist tendencies of episodic series in the US network era. However, Callan, a more modestly resourced series aimed more towards a domestic audience, incorporated elements of deeper psychological drama, class tension and influence from the existential spy thrillers. The book is an invaluable resource for television scholars interested in a new perspective on the history of television drama and intelligence scholars seeking an analysis of the popular representation of espionage.
Many people in the West can recognise an image of Mao Zedong (1894–1976) and know that he was an important Chinese leader, but few appreciate the breadth and depth of his political and cultural significance. Fewer still know what the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966–76) was, or understand the extent of its influence on art in the West or in China today. This anthology, which is the first of its kind, contends that Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution were dominant cultural and political forces in the second half of the twentieth century – and that they continue to exert influence, globally, right up to the present. In particular, the book claims that the Chinese Cultural Revolution deserves a more prominent place in twentieth-century art history. Exploring the dimensions of Mao’s cultural influence through case studies, and delineating the core of his aesthetic programme, in both the East and the West, constitute the heart of this project. While being rooted in the tradition of social art history and history, the essays, which have been written by an international community of scholars, foreground a distinctively multidisciplinary approach. Collectively they account for local, regional and national differences in the reception, adoption and dissemination of – or resistance to – Maoist aesthetics.
Art + archive: Understanding the archival turn in contemporary art examines the meaning and function of the notion of the archive in art writing and artistic practices c. 1995–2015. The book takes on one of the most persistent buzzwords in the international artworld, adding nuance and context to a much-discussed but under-analysed topic.
The study’s first part outlines key texts about archive art, the interdisciplinary theories these build on, and the specific meaning the archive comes to have when it is brought into the artworld. The second part examines the archive art phenomenon in relation to materiality, research, critique, curating and temporality. Instead of approaching the archive as an already defined conceptual tool for analysing art, the book rethinks the so-called archival turn, showing how the archive is used to point to, theorise and make sense of a number of different conditions and concerns deemed to be urgent and important at the turn of the twenty-first century. These include the far-reaching implications of technological changes; the prevalence of different forms of critique of normative structures; changes to the view of the art object; and the increasing academicisation of artistic practices. This book shows that the archive is adaptable and elastic, but that it is also loaded with a great deal of theoretical baggage. It clarifies why, how and with what consequences the archive is referenced and mobilised by contemporary artists and art writers.
Introduction In the late 1960s, the strong society’s optimistic idea of ever-increasing security in industrial society clashed with new images of reality, which focused on extensive social problems in the midst of social democratic society. In 1967, the husband and wife team of Gunnar and Maj Inghe published Den ofärdiga välfärden ( Unfinished
. By the end of the 1950s most of the Outer City wall had been destroyed, whilst that around the Inner City survived until the mid-1960s, when it was decided that, in order to build Beijing’s first subway line, it was better to bring down the ancient southern wall than to demolish homes or other buildings. When the writer and Sinophile David Kidd returned to China in 1981, having left behind a Beijing as yet largely untouched by the Communists thirty-two years previously, there was nothing left of them: ‘I expected to feel a pang, but
The historiography of the Civil Rights Movement of 1955–68 is both rich and extensive. Expressed in terms of the language and imagery of the natural world, the diversity, fecundity and quality of the scholarship is akin to the luxuriant growth of a tropical rain forest. Sadly, this pleasing vista is not an appropriate description for the body of published research by historians on Black Nationalist groups of the period or the Black Power Movement of the late 1960s and 1970s. The scholarly output on these subject areas has, by comparison, been sparse, stunted
166 The arts of Angela Carter 8 ‘Clothes are our weapons’: dandyism, fashion and subcultural style in Angela Carter’s fiction of the 1960s Catherine Spooner C arter’s fiction is replete with references to clothes and, in particular, to the heady possibilities afforded by dressing up: Melanie in The Magic Toyshop (1967), climbing a tree in her mother’s wedding dress; Leilah in The Passion of New Eve (1977) with her fabulous harlot’s wardrobe; Fevvers in Nights at the Circus (1984) dazzling the circus audience with her bottle-blonde hair and ambiguously fake