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Robert Murphy

Critical enthusiasm for realism in British cinema, from Grierson to Ken Loach, has obscured the fact that the majority of British films pay little regard to a realist ethos. Melodramas and crime films have traditionally made up a significant and substantial part of British cinema and a section of these films can be related to film noir. As film noir is a critical category constructed to deal with a

in European film noir
Bill Jones

with political culture. For example, Russian history shows a marked authoritarian tendency; the tzars were succeeded by a man sometimes described as the ‘Red Tzar’, Joseph Stalin. Following the implosion of the Soviet Union, many hoped democracy would take the place of communism but Vladimir Putin’s regime showed strong authoritarian tendencies. Similar problems with former communist regimes can be discerned in eastern Europe and central Asia. Finally, the United States and Britain hoped democracy would take root in Iraq after their joint invasion in 2003 but the

in British politics today
Robert F. Dewey, Jr.

1 National identity and Britishness Analysis of national identity is overwhelmingly a process of deconstruction. But any study acknowledging the complexities of patriotic sentiment must also involve a process of reconstruction. In other words, it is one thing to label manifestations of nationalism as extremist, insular or derived from fallacious assumptions and quite another to examine their pervasiveness and appeal. The following discussion of national identity, envisaged as a series of leitmotifs rather than a rigid analytic structure, is designed to help

in British national identity and opposition to membership of Europe, 1961–63
A. Martin Wainwright

The cricketer prince It was mid-July 1896 and cricket fans were flocking to Old Trafford in Manchester to watch England’s second test match against Australia. But more was on their minds than simply who would win the match. Indeed, given England’s miserable performance in the first test at Lords in London, British fans had little reason to hope

in ‘The better class’ of Indians
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Andrew Spicer

Because of the powerful and well-established tradition of crime films in British cinema, the vast majority of British neo-noirs are variations of the crime thriller, differentiated from more conventional films by their highly wrought visual style, an emphasis on moral ambiguity and psychological complexity, and an often deliberate blurring of the boundaries between reality and fantasy, subjectivity

in European film noir
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A window on the deaf world
Martin Atherton

5 British Deaf News: a window on the deaf world The existence of a group of people who identify themselves as members of a distinct community based primarily on their shared deafness is without dispute. The members of this community are geographically dispersed; there are no places in Britain where the majority of inhabitants are deaf. However, it has been established that a locus for the community’s activities was provided by the network of deaf clubs that were established from the mid-nineteenth century. In these clubs, deaf people were able to develop notions

in Deafness, community and culture in Britain
A certain tendency?
B. F. Taylor

The British New Wave 1 The British New Wave: a certain tendency? The terrible thing about the cinema is the way it uses up everything. It exhausts ideas, stories, brands of stories, and suddenly finds itself faced with a kind of gulf, a ditch across which it must leap to capture some new and absolutely unforeseen territory. We’re not talking, obviously, about eternal masterpieces: clearly Shakespeare always had something to say, and he didn’t have to jump any ditch. But it’s a situation ordinary film production is likely to run into every five years or so. In

in The British New Wave
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Why we need the ‘Health Society’
Authors: Martin Yuille and Bill Ollier

Saving sick Britain lays down a challenge to every citizen, to British institutions, policymakers and scientists. Epidemics in common diseases and conditions like diabetes and depression pose systemic risks to society, which are as serious as those from Covid-19. These modern plagues are the challenge of our times. The authors argue that these epidemics require us to think afresh about the prevention of disease. They first examine the basics of contemporary political philosophy and modern biology to redefine what ‘health’ really means. They then outline a practical way to focus society relentlessly on maintaining the health of all its citizens. This plan is not just another reform of the National Health Service. It calls for far more than that. The authors aim to construct a national ‘Health Society’ and this requires across-the-board reform of the entirety of public policy. Every department of government – national and local – needs to change. Every workplace, every employer, every community organisation and every citizen has a role to play. Because the authors have a background in basic biology, they come at the problem of prevention from a new direction, unburdened by the traditions of the medical profession or by ideological dogma. Two millennia ago, Hippocrates said prevention was better than cure, and Cicero said population health was the supreme law. They were right. But they could do precious little about it. Yuille and Ollier show how today we can turn their insights into reality.

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‘Dominion over palm and pine’
W.J. Reader

can help the young mind to appreciate the value and might of the British Empire … must be for the benefit of posterity’, wrote a flamboyant naval hero, Lord Charles Beresford (1846-1919), in 1908, recommending The Children’s Encyclopaedia . 1 In 1911 Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) and C. R. L. Fletcher (1857-1934), an opinionated Oxford don, collaborated in A School History of England. Kipling’s contribution was verse, mostly bad, though a reviewer in the Daily Express thought well of it and commented: ‘there

in 'At duty’s call'
Breandan Gregory

British India as spectacle India was unique in the British experience of Empire, not just because of the scale of the enterprise or the importance of India to the British economy but also because the British consciously felt that they were inheriting an imperial mantle. Although British administrators in the nineteenth century followed Mill

in Acts of supremacy