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Medicine in the colonies in the Age of Commerce
Pratik Chakrabarti

and intellectual practices, and commodities of their medical knowledge. This, in turn, formed the basis of the medical cultures of the colonies. A journey travelling westwards to find a new trade route to the spice islands of the East, in 1492, took Europeans to a new world. Christopher Columbus landed in the West Indies, believing that he had reached India. Over time, these Caribbean islands and the great continents lying beyond them provided Europe with a plenitude of new resources. In South America the Spanish found

in Materials and medicine
Ajmal Waqif

that slaves being brought to Jamaica by worried masters fleeing from Haiti had been fraternising with Jamaican slaves who were now beginning to talk about their own revolt.59 It was in this ‘correspondence’ that Wedderburn discussed the earlier Caribbean slave revolts known to history as the First and Second Maroon Wars (1673–1731 and 1795–96). Wedderburn made a point of claiming maroon ancestry in The Axe Laid to the Root and recounts that they had ‘fought for twenty years against the Christians, who wanted to reduce them again to slavery, after they had fled into

in The Cato Street Conspiracy
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The culture of free trade versus the culture of anti-slavery in Britain and the British Caribbean, 1840–50
Philip Harling

One might well say that Britain lost its soul to its sweet tooth in 1846. For in that year of the cheap sugar loaf as well as the cheap bread loaf, the House of Commons by a comfortable majority slated for execution the protective duties that had long given British Caribbean sugar a huge advantage in the home market. Before 1833 those duties had of course protected a slave-based system of

in The cultural construction of the British world
Claude McKay’s experience and analysis of Britain
Winston James

fact’ry chimneys pourin’ smoke up to de sky, An’ to see de matches-children, dat I hear ‘bout, passin’ by. 1 These stanzas from McKay’s poem – ‘Old England’ – express the conventional, British Caribbean and colonial view of the mother country. It was published in 1912. His opinions, however

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
Constructing imperial identity through Liverpool petition struggles
Joshua Civin

speciality was as essential to the future of the port as the slave trade had been. In the first decade of the nineteenth century, competition for precedence between the West India Association and the American Chamber of Commerce was exacerbated by wartime policies. The Orders in Council of 1807, demanding that all neutral trade to the Continent first pass through Britain or be subject to seizure, advantaged Liverpool’s West Indies merchants, by excluding US competitors from Caribbean-Continental trading routes. By contrast, Liverpool American merchants suffered when the

in Parliaments, nations and identities in Britain and Ireland, 1660–1850
Barbadian women and slaveholding
Cecily Jones

Therefore, to explicate white female agency in Caribbean plantation society and the implications for relations between women, some critical analysis of their independent activities as slaveholders is imperative. I argue that through their ownership of slaves, white women themselves targeted and preyed upon black women and men in pursuit of their own social and economic interests

in Engendering whiteness
Stephen Snelders

be the name of the place in Africa where the disease had come from.3 By 1755, it was feared that boasie, quickly identified with leprosy, would spread from Africa via Suriname to Europe. African slaves were thought to carry the disease across the Atlantic to the Caribbean, where Europeans were then infected. Europeans could then in turn bring leprosy back to the Netherlands, where it had become extinct. To many observers, the health of the Dutch colonial and commercial empire was at stake. This chapter argues that to the colonial rulers, boasie or leprosy’s first

in Leprosy and colonialism
Race, indigenous naval recruitment and British colonialism, 1934–41
Daniel Owen Spence

research that reconciles official records with subaltern sources from across the Caribbean, South and South-East Asia, this chapter examines the intersections between indigenous and European histories, maritime communities and naval culture, the discourses of power and identities that emerged from these relationships, and their impact upon colonial societies and imperial power at the twilight of the British Empire. From the mid-nineteenth century, British recruitment of indigenous soldiers for its colonial armies became shaped by what was termed ‘martial race’ theory

in A new naval history
Open Access (free)
Bill Schwarz

his wife again; was never to see his daughter; and he never returned to the Caribbean. This represents a particular variant on the theme of emigration which underwrites the story of twentieth-century Caribbean intellectuals. From 1929 to 1933 Padmore energetically devoted himself to the ideals of Soviet Communism, rising high in the firmament of the Communist administration; thereafter, until his death

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
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David Brown

ships at Kinsale, County Cork at the end of January 1649. This continued the threat posed by the naval protection offered to the Confederates by the Dutch Republic. Charles II was proclaimed king by the Covenanter parliament in Scotland. When word of the regicide reached Virginia in March 1649 Governor George Berkeley also immediately recognised Charles II as monarch and invited him to travel to the relative safety of the colony and rule his dominions from there. 2 As the Caribbean colonies were now devoted almost entirely to sugar production, Virginia had become the

in Empire and enterprise