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Duy Lap Nguyen

history created for the SSPL, its founding members were former French resistance leaders affiliated with the Việt Minh and the Vietnamese Nationalist Party (Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng). During the communist wave of repression in 1953, which enabled the Party to consolidate its power in the North, the future leaders of the SSPL were forced to flee to Nghệ An and Hà Tĩnh, the native provinces of Hồ Chí Minh and Lê Lợi. At a secret conference held in April 1953 in a clandestine base in the highlands, the SSPL was founded and Lê Quốc Hùng was elected as its first president.7 In

in The unimagined community
Open Access (free)
Memory and popular film
Paul Grainge

example, has discussed the tensions between official histories and their contestation in ‘popular’ or unofficial memory, analysing the bearing of historical and memorial knowledge on formations of identity and operations of power. In a discussion of ‘film and popular memory’ in French cinema of the 1970s (specifically, a number of films dealing with the French Resistance), Foucault suggests that memory is ‘a very important

in Memory and popular film
From Vietnam to the war in the Persian Gulf
John Storey

of French cinema in the 1970s Michel Foucault argued that recent French films (featuring the French Resistance) were engaged in ‘a battle . . . to reprogramme . . . the “popular memory”; and . . . to . . . impose on people a framework in which to interpret the present . . . So people are shown not what they were, but what they must remember having been.’ 17 Although I reject Foucault’s rather crude

in Memory and popular film
Serge Sur

gag-like humour of these films has a sort of American flavour. It is a parody at times of Spielberg’s Indiana Jones , 49 a rather satirical character himself. In another facet of self-criticism, US film also has a parodic register. Thus, Quentin Tarantino’s Inglourious Basterds 50 mocks the extravagant heroism of war propaganda films, as well as some rosy-coloured excesses of the French Resistance. Yet, it is uncertain whether this satirical dimension was perceived by all spectators, who may have been offended by the excessive violence that is, once again, a

in Cinematic perspectives on international law
Zdenko Maršálek and Diego Gaspar Celaya

Britain with the remnants of the army, while the other half should stay in France. Some would slip back to the occupied homeland, while those who had some connections or background in France later tried to join the French Resistance. Spanish volunteers and German, Italian and Jewish exiles serving with the Foreign Legion, volunteer regiments or labour companies were also caught up in the turmoil of events. Those who had signed a contract ‘for duration of hostilities’ were demobilised, but now found themselves as unwanted foreigners in Vichy France. Unless they escaped

in Fighters across frontiers
Escape lines
Diego Gaspar Celaya and Lennert Savenije

of people across the mountains did not end with the Second World War. In particular, Spanish republicans who had fought with the French Resistance during the war did not demobilise. Counting on the complicity of new, Liberation-era local authorities who had been their comrades in battle, guerrillas belonging to the Union Nacional Española (Spanish National Union) managed to gather a significant number of troops in the Pyrenees and invaded Spain on 19 October 1944. Led by the PCE, this operation, known as the Reconquista de España, intended to liberate a zone from

in Fighters across frontiers
Abstract only
Lindsey Dodd

dans la vie. Philippe Joutard et l’histoire orale à la française’, Sociétés et Répresentations, 35.1 (2013), pp. 183–207; F. Descamps, F. Weber and B. Müller, ‘Archives orales et entretiens ethnographiques. Un débat entre Florence Descamps et Florence Weber, animé par Bertrand Müller’, Genèses, 62.1 (2006), pp. 93–109. 6 S. R. Suleiman, ‘History, heroism and narrative desire: national memory of the French resistance’, South Central Review, 21.1 (2004), pp. 54–81. 7 M. Fulbrook, ‘History writing and “collective memory” ’, in S. Berger and B.  Niven (eds.), Writing

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Mers el-Kébir and the rhetoric of imperial confrontation in July 1940
Rachel Chin

the other hand, if the event encountered problems such as unforeseen French resistance resulting in clashes between the two parties, news regarding the proceedings would be released as they progressed in order to, ‘explain our attitude and the reasons for the action which we are taking’. 28 Both scenarios emphasized the crucial need to rhetorically justify the British actions to the broader public

in Rhetorics of empire
Renate Günther

France, her personal history was somewhat ambiguous which, in the eyes of some of her biographers, puts into question her retrospective self-image as a heroine of the French Resistance. This ambiguity came about because, from 1942 until 1943, Duras occupied the post of secretary at the commission de contrôle du papier, a commission set up by the Vichy Government and which was responsible for reading and censoring manuscripts. Duras

in Marguerite Duras
Gender adaptations in modern war films
Jeffrey Walsh

celebrated heroines of the French Resistance, such as Odette (1951), and Carve Her Name with Pride (1958), its genre is more female adventure or spy story than combat tale. The heroine, played with an unconvincing Scottish accent by Cate Blanchett, is a translator whose knowledge of French assists the war effort, initially in London. After a whirlwind romance with an RAF flyer, who goes missing in action, she

in Gender and warfare in the twentieth century