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Nikki Ikani

solidarity [with a] lack of strong institutions’ which made it increasingly unsustainable during the migration crisis (Scipioni 2017: 1365 ). Whilst the Lisbon Treaty has empowered supranational institutions on the issue of migration, the policies in this area retained a high degree of continuity, especially since the European Parliament used its new-found responsibility differently than some analysts had expected, rather supporting and reinforcing the more restrictive policies of the European Council. ‘In fact, informal negotiations [in this policy

in Crisis and change in European Union foreign policy
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A reluctant ally
James W. Peterson and Jacek Lubecki

foundation for the development of a vibrant and meaningful “strategic culture.” With respect to the EU as a centerpiece of a Western-based strategic culture, there was initial participation in its Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), but after 9/11 this gave way within the alliance to a more hardheaded European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP). Five years after Czech accession to the EU, the Lisbon Treaty in 2009 replaced the

in Defense policies of East-Central European countries after 1989
A comparative analysis of the experiences in EU countries
Matt Qvortrup

Lisbon Treaty. The proposal was to force a moratorium on nuclear energy, which – in the view of the proposers – had shown itself to be unsafe in the wake of the Japanese earthquake. The French Socialist Party (PS) was not amused. The party remained – and remains – a staunch defender of nuclear energy, which is the main source of energy in France.1 What will come of the proposal remains unknown at the time of writing. Whether we can expect development on this front is an open question. But what is interesting is that the legislative initiative is used at all – or even

in Direct democracy
Economic relations between Ireland and the EU between the crash and Brexit
Patrick Gallagher, Fergal Rhatigan, and Seán Ó Riain

institutionalisation of “fiscal prudence” in the years after the crash. Between the second referendum on the Lisbon Treaty in 2009 and the Fiscal Treaty referendum in 2012, Ireland submitted to direct governance by the EU–IMF funders of a government bailout in 2010 and saw a general election in 2011 which decimated the governing Fianna Fáil party. The key element of the institutionalisation of fiscal

in Ireland and the European Union
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Katy Hayward

to Nice’: still no direct answers about the future shape of the EU, intimations of lagging faith in EU partners, wariness of pinning colours to the EU mast. If the 2001 referendum saw some chickens coming home to roost, the 2008 referendum on the Lisbon Treaty witnessed the hatching of their eggs. Conclusion The result of the first Nice Treaty referendum does not represent the end of a symbiotic fit between the Irish nation-state and the European Union; on the contrary, it highlights the importance of the relationship between official nationalism and European

in Irish nationalism and European integration
Oliver Daddow

forum commenting on the desirability of holding a national ‘Britain in or out’ referendum on the EU, to replicate that held on EEC membership in 1975. As we would expect of people logging onto a forum maintained by a newspaper that is no great supporter of the EU, the vast majority of the posts were sceptical about the EU, about Gordon Brown’s handling of the ‘referendum’ question and about that on the Lisbon Treaty in particular. More pertinent, however, than the numbers of ‘pros’ versus ‘antis’, was the jargon used to express opposition to the EU, the three examples

in New Labour and the European Union
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Modernity, welfare state and EUtopia
Shivdeep Grewal

noting, prescribe some form of statehood as a terminus for the European project: an article on the Irish rejection of the Lisbon Treaty, for example, reiterated the need for a ‘cautious harmonization of tax and economic policy, and the gradual assimilation of social security systems within the EU’ (Habermas, 2008a: 2). Drawing on the Sozialstaat concepts of TCA and BFN, neither Eriksen and Fossum (2000) nor the author depart significantly from such views. The elaboration of alternate ‘futures’ for the EU has been taken up by other established scholars. As well as

in Habermas and European Integration (second edition)
Brice Dickson

: referenda on amending the Constitution to allow Ireland to ratify the Nice and Lisbon Treaties were both initially lost, so changes had to be made to those Treaties before they were put before the people again, this time successfully. Ireland, like Canada, is an example of a modern liberal democracy which has benefited enormously from inserting a fairly modern Bill of Rights into its written Constitution and thereby creating a category of ‘constitutional rights’, a category whose existence, as we shall see in

in Writing the United Kingdom Constitution
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Jonathan Hearn

Conservative government is exploring options in what is expected to be a long-drawn-out process of delivering Brexit. That process officially began on 29 March 2017, when the UK invoked Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty. Negotiations for exit are supposedly to be concluded within two years. Behind these events lies a deeper issue, of a changing political and economic landscape, and the weakening grip of the established two-party system, Labour and Conservative, on that terrain. There has been a fundamental historical shift, from a more industrially based economy with a

in Salvage ethnography in the financial sector
Bernadette Connaughton

institutional structures with the shift from unanimity to the introduction of qualified majority voting in the Council of Ministers and an enhancement of the European Parliament’s role. The Treaty on European Union (1991) built on these reforms, enshrined the principle of subsidiarity and introduced the timetable for EMU. Further treaty revision has followed with the Amsterdam Treaty (1996), Nice Treaty (2001), the ill-fated European Constitution, and most recently the Lisbon Treaty defeated in Ireland in a referendum on the 12 June 2008. All have ramifications for

in Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland