’s intersections with the world of foreign policy.
On the one hand, he continued to believe in the potential of the program to build
At war in Vietnam
understanding across national borders; on the other, he realised it had to be protected
more actively from politicalmanipulation, not least by his own government’s secret
Senator Fulbright’s interventions in the public debates over Vietnam, especially
from early 1966, added a powerful voice to the growing protest movements. Though
his name was no longer officially attached to the Australian program, he was
The Länder and German federalism
Parliamentary control of finances is limited, as in most other parliamentary bodies, by the large proportion of expenditures that are fixed by
law and not subject to politicalmanipulation. In practice joint task
expenditures made under Article 91a and 91b or Article 104a, para. 4, of
the Basic Law are also not subject to revision by the Land parliamentary
majorities because of their reluctance to refuse federal matching funds or
reject actions of their own government. On the other hand, the deputies
tradition of autocthinous [ sic ] and aggressive imperialist nationalism in America. Thus, American patterns of non-politicalmanipulation – and especially certain marginal phenomena – had to be fused artificially with fascist notions of the Italian and German brand. One has to think of the barker who puts such high pressure behind advertising that it approaches violence. Much has also been borrowed from fanatic religious revivalism – promoting an ecstasy which is relished as such and unrelated to any concrete content, while rigid, dogmatic stereotypes, as e.g. the
London : Duke University Press , 2005 ) 150–72 .
17 Shohat, Israeli Cinema , 215ff.
18 See: Geremy Forman, ‘Military Rule, PoliticalManipulation, and Jewish Settlement: Israeli Mechanisms for Controlling Nazareth in the 1950s’ (2006) Journal of Israeli History 335ff.
19 See Haaretz, ‘“We Look at Them Like Donkeys”: What Israel’s First Ruling Party Thought About Palestinian Citizens’, 13 January 2018.
20 See Chronicle of a Disappearance (Elia Suleiman, Palestine/Israel, 1996); Yom Yom (Amos Gitaï, Israel/France,1998); Jaffa (Keren Yedaya
is, of course,
another matter, but there can be no doubt that FPTP is far more susceptible to politicalmanipulation than any of the more proportional
JOHNSTON 9781526139894 PRINT.indd 116
How representative is our democracy?
Figure 6.7 The same 49 wards and distribution of support for the two
parties as in Figure 6.3, but with the boundaries of the seven constituencies
drawn to favour party B
The geography of disproportionality
In international comparisons, UK general election outcomes are
among the most disproportional
aims of positive
transformation insofar as they encourage politicalmanipulation, create
resistance to reforms and may push some actors further towards the informal
and illicit sectors.
Of the four potential impacts of ideology on transformation, it is this final
hypothetical that requires the least reassessment. While there was a general
acceptance of the alternative and historically grounded manner in which
Kosovo organises itself and operates, there appeared a general consensus that
this would, and should, change with time, and that given the right tools it
sadly, only to be expected in a colonial society in which ethnic
discrimination, extreme poverty, rural hunger and politicalmanipulation were endemic. By contrast, the extreme military repression
that ensued in and around Constantine, with its presumptive targeting of
adult civilian males as irretrievable enemies of the state, was
born of the Algerian situation. It was the culmination of the asymmetry
politicalmanipulation, Fishkin argues, ‘The fact that the
practice might conceivably be so successful that it robs the
subordinate group of any desire to voice its interests is only an
indication of how dramatically our conditions are violated.’ 17
Evident in both Alexy’s pragmatic rules for
discourse and Benhabib’s principle of egalitarian reciprocity
is a concern for forms of
consequently, not only can fear be challenged but it can disrupt the whole securitisation enterprise (van Rythoven 2015 ).
What I find most problematic in this thesis is that emotions are tools of politicalmanipulation – in other words, instruments to ‘use’ to gain desired outcomes, such as funding for surveillance operations (Robin 2004 ). In this view, emotions are considered as ontological tools that can be instrumentalised and ‘put into’ individuals to influence them to do things, to control them. The perception of emotions here is negative: they
mechanisms and politicalmanipulations largely coordinated by modern science. However, I raise two major objections to Foucault’s critique of structuralist practice and modern dialectics:
(a) Practice exists within social structures, but the scientific or social subjects
still need a theory. They need a certain theorizing, which safeguards that,
in times of crises, practice is based on experience, but mostly has roots
and is generated by their theoretical concerns and anxieties over what
constitutes the rational. Lack of any form of normativity, which results