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Norman Geras

breach. The Treaty of Sèvres with Turkey did so, if only by implication, but it was never ratified; it was replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne, which carried an amnesty clause instead.18 In a general way, nevertheless, a notion of crimes or offences against humanity had by now ‘entered the realm of serious public discourse’.19 Talking about reparations in a speech during the General Election campaign of December 1918, Lloyd George had insisted that the primary consideration of the Allies would be the interests of those on whom Germany had made war, and ‘not the

in Crimes against humanity
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

those over whom Britain ruled. Some Liberals strongly opposed Britain’s involvement in the First World War – even though it was a Liberal Government that declared war on Germany. Still others, Keynes for example, were highly critical of the Versailles Treaty (1919) that ended the war and imposed punitive financial reparations on Germany. Nevertheless, most liberals were highly supportive of the League of Nations, which was

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Abstract only
Kathryn Nash

the crisis, but Nyerere would not agree to any mediation until the OAU condemned Uganda’s aggression, Uganda renounced all territorial claims, and Uganda paid reparations for damages. 21 None of these conditions were met, and a viable mediation effort never materialized. Over several months, Tanzanian forces advanced further and further into Ugandan territory and continued to aid exiled Ugandan rebels seeking to overthrow Idi Amin. Ultimately, Amin was overthrown in April 1979, and it was Tanzanian and exiled Uganda troops who marched into the capital together

in African peace
Imogen Richards

directly by organisations such as AQ and IS, importantly, as Chapters 3 and 4 show, they provide the ideological backdrop on which their anti-capitalist discourses are articulated. Cases of crisis-lending to LDCs, such as in joint-run World Bank, IMF, and US Agency for International Development (USAID) projects in Haiti during the 1980s and in 2010, demonstrate some of the undesirable effects referenced in the IMF report. These effects in fact extended Haiti’s long legacy of debt servitude, since its independence, including payment of reparations for a century from

in Neoliberalism and neo-jihadism
From Cold War ‘security threats’ to the ‘security challenges’ of today
David Arter

and the 1944 Finno-Soviet armistice confirmed the borders of the Moscow Peace Treaty of 13 March 1940. The loss of the Karelian peninsula to the Soviet Union was confirmed; Finland lost its Arctic Sea outlet of Petsamo; the demilitarisation of the Åland islands was reaffirmed; Porkkala, at the narrowest point of the Gulf of Finland, was leased to the Soviet Union as a naval base for fifty years; and fascist organisations were proscribed whilst the Communist Party, banned in 1930, was re-legalised. There was also a substantial reparations sum, repayable largely in

in Scandinavian politics today
Christopher Snedden

first Anglo-Sikh War in 1846. (British forces also won the second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849.) The victorious East India Company then concluded two consecutive treaties. The first was the Treaty of Lahore on 9 March, which, amongst other matters, imposed reparations on the losers. The second, exactly a week later, was the Treaty of Amritsar with Raja Gulab Singh who, in 1846, assisted the British against the Sikhs. 11 According to the Frenchman, Victor Jacquemont, who met Gulab Singh in 1831, he ‘was a soldier of fortune

in Independent Kashmir
Julia Gallagher

affection: ‘The British were our colonial administrators. They trained us, they granted independence; so they will not neglect us.’39 For others, by a sense of guilt for wrongs done: Sierra Leone and Africa more generally have lost the basic manpower and resources as a result of colonialism and the slave trade … I think that morally, they must assist us, one, because of slavery, and, two, because of colonisation and their time in control of our wealth. On the whole African leaders have not been pushing for reparations, but if I was one of them, I would push it.40 There

in Britain and Africa under Blair
David Arter

75 per cent. However, the election was also remarkable on at least three counts. 84 Parties in developmental perspective First, although, against the odds, Finland had not been occupied, an Allied Control Commission, chaired by the Russian Andrei Zhdanov, had installed itself in Hotel Torni in central Helsinki shortly after the armistice with the Soviet Union of 19 September 1944. The Finns, moreover, were required (and had begun) to meet a reparations debt payable largely in terms of heavy goods and machinery – trawlers and other merchant shipping, pulp and

in Scandinavian politics today
A Habermasian model of truth recovery
Kirk Simpson

the case with Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo in Argentina, the mothers of those who ‘disappeared’ – kidnapped and presumably murdered – at the hands of the Argentinean military dictatorship between 1976 and 1983, who refused to accept monetary reparations from the government in the post-authoritarian era (for an in-depth discussion of this phenomenon, see Taylor, 1997) and who moved from the cherished position of ‘Mothers of the Nation’ to being lambasted as ‘Las Locas’ (the Crazy old Ladies) for their reluctance to end their campaign for justice (demanding that the

in Truth recovery in Northern Ireland
Abstract only
A ‘normal’ democracy?
Geoffrey K. Roberts

or Sweden, of the UK or the Netherlands can be regarded as ‘normal’. For eastern Germany, first under Soviet occupation, then as the GDR, the burden of the past had somewhat different characteristics than in the Federal Republic. The economy suffered because heavy reparations were extracted by the Soviets, and it then rapidly became a collectivised economic system, run according to rigid socialist planning. Political and social development had to take place within the framework of communist ideology and Soviet self-interest. The separation of the GDR from the

in German politics today (third edition)