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The growth of terrorism and counterterrorism in Nigeria, 1999–2016
Jennifer Giroux and Michael Nwankpa

Introduction Most discussions about terrorism in Nigeria – and, indeed, Africa more broadly – tend to be about the Nigerian-based group referred to as Boko Haram – and for good reason. Formed in the early 2000s out of a small religious sect in the northeast of Nigeria, over the years Boko Haram has become an increasingly violent force that evolved into a full-blown insurgency in 2009 – a year that is also notable as it marked the decline of a completely different insurgency in Nigeria's Niger Delta region in the south. Since then, sustained

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
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Global security architectures and civil society since 9/ 11
Scott N. Romaniuk and Emeka Thaddues Njoku

. (Gordon Brown, Chancellor of the Exchequer, speech given at Chatham House, London, October 10, 2006) The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) against the United States led to new waves of scholarship on the proliferation of terrorism and efforts to combat international terrorism groups, organizations, and networks. One of the arguments

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
Ontological, epistemological and normative issues
Sondre Lindahl

Introduction As the two preceding chapters have documented, it would not be an overstatement to suggest that Western countries embraced a kind of terrorism/counter-terrorism hyperbole after the 9/11 attacks. The almost singular focus and frenzied attention on waging war on terror was at the same time, as a recent article shows, supported by a similar singular focus and attention in academia on jihadism ( Schuurman, 2019 ). As a result, other terrorism s or forms of violent extremism were subjugated or simply ignored. However, with several attacks perpetrated

in Encountering extremism
Wider Europe, weaker Europe?

The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.

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David Brown

1 Introduction On 11 September 2001, terrorism was seared into the global consciousness, as the world watched live the horrific images of hijacked planes being crashed into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. In the years that followed, Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden have become household names, dominating the airwaves and making full use of what Margaret Thatcher once called ‘the oxygen of publicity’.1 The 24-hour global media has beamed pictures of death and destruction into our living rooms, while commentators and analysts scrutinise bin Laden’s taped

in The European Union, counter terrorism and police co-operation, 1992–2007
Globalisation, securitisation and control
Christopher Baker-Beall

4 Constructing the ‘migrant’ other: globalisation, securitisation and control Introduction This chapter explores the strand of the ‘fight against terrorism’ discourse that constructs the ‘openness’ of European Union (EU) society as an environment that terrorists seek to take advantage of, demonstrating how issues regarding migration and border control have come to occupy a key dimension of the EU counter-terrorism response. In the period before the events of 11 September 2001, migration was an important subject on the agenda of the EU in relation to the

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
Propaganda and finance in Al Qaeda and Islamic State
Author: Imogen Richards

Few social and political phenomena have been debated as frequently or fervidly as neoliberalism and neo-jihadism. Yet, while discourse on these phenomena has been wide-ranging, they are rarely examined in relation to one another. In response, Neoliberalism and neo-jihadism examines political-economic characteristics of twentieth and early twenty-first-century neo-jihadism. Drawing on Bourdieusian and neo-Marxist ideas, it investigates how the neo-jihadist organisations, Al Qaeda and Islamic State, engage with the late modern capitalist paradigm of neoliberalism in their anti-capitalist propaganda and quasi-capitalist financial practices. An investigation of documents and discourses reveals interactions between neoliberalism and neo-jihadism characterised by surface-level contradiction, and structural connections that are dialectical and mutually reinforcing. Neoliberalism here is argued to constitute an underlying ‘status quo’, while neo-jihadism, as an evolving form of political organisation, is perpetuated as part of this situation.

Representing differentiated, unique, and exclusive examples of the (r)evolutionary phenomenon of neo-jihadism, AQ and IS are demonstrated in Neoliberalism and neo-jihadism to be characteristic of the mutually constitutive nature of ‘power and resistance’. Just as resistance movements throughout modern history have ended up resembling the forms of power they sought to overthrow, so too have AQ and IS ended up resembling and reconstituting the dominant political-economic paradigm of neoliberalism they mobilised in response to.

Irene Chan

suppression of the Uyghur community, both internationally and domestically. Critics have pointed out that terrorism is a rhetorical tool to secure and legitimize Chinese rule over restive autonomous regions such as Tibet and Xinjiang. 2 Terrorism in China has been closely related to separatist movements in ethnic autonomous regions, particularly the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (henceforth ‘Xinjiang’). An examination of the spike in violent incidents in Xinjiang and mainland China since 2008 shows that the potential of social unrest in Xinjiang is real

in Non-Western responses to terrorism
Preventing ‘radicalisation’, ‘violent extremism’ and ‘terrorism’
Christopher Baker-Beall

5 Constructing the ‘Muslim’ other: preventing ‘radicalisation’, ‘violent extremism’ and ‘terrorism’ Introduction This chapter explores the strand of the ‘fight against terrorism’ discourse that connects the threat of terrorism to ‘violent religious extremism’. The chapter focuses specifically on an EU belief that preventing terrorism is best achieved through the development of policies designed to combat the process of ‘radicalisation’. The chapter considers the emergence and evolution of the EU’s counter-radicalisation discourse. It shows how the ‘radicalisation

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
The impact of counter-terrorism policy on civil society in the EU
Scott N. Romaniuk, Ákos Baumgartner, and Glen M. E. Duerr

. Thus, counter-terrorism has become a more significant discussion for governments across Europe coalescing with the EU as a means of providing shared safety from terrorism. The European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation, commonly referred to as Europol, and the European Border and Coast Guard Agency known as Frontex provide examples of Europe-wide mechanisms to tackle

in Counter-terrorism and civil society