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Monarchy, contractualism and history
Steve Poole

an institution. Significance is found in Chartist disruptions of civic meetings to congratulate Victoria on her escape from the regicide Edward Oxford in 1840.25 But this is an oversimplification. By and large, Chartists were not republicans. They sought to use meetings like these for their own constitutional ends, certainly, but their disrespect was generally reserved for bourgeois civic elites, and not extended to the virgin Queen in the capital. The loud and lewd declamatory critique of monarchy unearthed to such effect by Ian McCalman26 in late Hanoverian

in The politics of regicide in England, 1760–1850
English responses to the accession of King James VI and I
Christopher Ivic

women: ‘the English Nation’. When Dekker describes England as ‘a nation that was almost begotten and borne vnder her’, he acknowledges the Virgin Queen’s reign as the crucible out of which English nationhood emerged. 40 Elegies in honour of the deceased queen are permeated with anti-Catholic sentiments. Many of the texts that mourn the late queen triumphantly revisit England’s defeat of the Spanish Armada. ‘In peace thou ruld vs foure and fourtie yeare’, writes the clergyman Thomas Rogers, figuring Elizabeth as ‘Spight of proude Rome , and ambitious Spaine ’. 41

in The subject of Britain, 1603–25
The Virgin in the Garden and Still Life
Alexa Alfer and Amy J. Edwards de Campos

prologue, Alexander Wedderburn is writing Astraea , his Eliot-esque verse-drama on the Virgin Queen, which is steeped in the complex dilemma of how to square the ‘then’ with the ‘now’ – of how to accommodate difference and the desire for historical continuity. Performed in the year of the second Elizabeth’s coronation, the play is favourably received by an audience ignited by national enthusiasm for a

in A. S. Byatt
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Of letters and the man: Sir Walter Ralegh
Christopher M. Armitage, Thomas Herron, and Julian Lethbridge

Came from the Holy Land of Walsingham’, often attributed to Ralegh, is revisited by Gary Waller. He postulates that the lingering esteem in Protestant England for the Roman Catholic shrine to the Virgin Mary at Walsingham was analogous to the cult of the Virgin Queen Elizabeth. Ralegh had three sons, two of whom died in his lifetime. In the riddle poem, ‘The Wood, the Weed, and the Wag’, Judith Owens detects a growing conflict between the concern of a father for his son and the stern law of the state, ending with the father ‘a helpless petitioner for God

in Literary and visual Ralegh
Ralegh, Spenser, and the literary politics of the Cynthia holograph
Anna Beer

twist to the apparent praise. When Ralegh writes ‘With Circes let them dwell, that thinke not so’, the possibility of thinking ‘not so’ is injected into the poem. Miri Tashma-Baum, ‘A Shroud for the Mind: Ralegh’s Poetic Rewriting of the Self ’, Early Modern Literary Studies 10.1 (1 May 2004). For my earlier understanding of the textual relationship between Ralegh and his Queen, see Anna Beer, ‘’Knowinge shee can renew’: Sir Walter Ralegh in Praise of the Virgin Queen’, Criticism 34 (1992), 497–515, which argues that the Cynthia holograph operates as ‘sophisticated

in Literary and visual Ralegh
Ralegh and the call to arms
Andrew Hiscock

Protestant Terwin (Thérouanne) by Catholic forces in 1553, and the expulsion of their fellows from Trevisan (Treves) in the early 1560s.13 Much has been justly made in literary and cultural histories of Philippe de Mornay’s close relations with the Sidneys, the advances of the Duc d’Anjou to the Virgin Queen, Francis Bacon’s sojourn at the English Embassy at Paris, and the participation of Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, in Henri IV’s Normandy campaign of 1591. Nonetheless, this conflict was kept more generally in the eyes of the Elizabethan reading public with the regular

in Literary and visual Ralegh
Rachel E. Hile

suggested the possibility that Thomas Nashe’s madam, associated with Venus, may have glanced at Queen Elizabeth and her famous jealousy of courtier-favorites who fell for (and married) ladies-in-waiting. In this section and the “coda” that follows, I continue to explore the satirical potential for mocking the Virgin Queen, Elizabeth, by associating her—more or less circuitously—with Venus. I will look at two poems, Spenser’s Muiopotmos; or, The Fate of the Butterflie, which, though part of the recalled Complaints volume, has never been perceived as the target of the

in Spenserian satire
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The Faerie Queene III–IV
Victoria Coldham-Fussell

visual absurdity – what Bergson would call the comic spectacle of ‘something mechanical encrusted on the living’ – as we imagine ‘two burning lampes ... set / In siluer sockets’ stirring and rolling ‘like to womens eyes’ and framed with ‘golden wyre’ for hair (III.viii.7.1–5). 48 As well as making fun of Petrarchan excess (as the Amoretti often do), the material reproduction of Florimell’s virginity would seem to point up reductive emphasis on chastity as a merely physical qualification – moreover using language familiar from serious panegyric of the Virgin Queen

in Comic Spenser
Queen Elizabeth I as Lady Alchymia
Jayne Elisabeth Archer

the traditional attributes of Alchymia and the symbolism used in representations of the Virgin Queen, and these correspondences provided a discourse through which alchemists could imagine and approach their ‘ultimate patron’. Chastity, which, as Philippa Berry has noted, was crucial to Elizabeth’s representation as an authoritative, but potentially unsettling, bearer and creator

in Goddesses and Queens
G. W. M. Reynolds and The Mysteries of London
Rob Breton

and interprets what he sees: At that time Victoria was yet a virgin-queen. If not strictly beautiful, her countenance was very pleasing. Her light brown hair was worn quite plain; her blue eyes were animated with intellect; and when she smiled, her lips revealed a set of teeth white as Oriental pearls. Her bust was magnificent, and her figure good, in spite of the lowness of her stature. 1 That the young queen was not shy to display her bust is known, but to place a working-class boy so near to it, and to have a novelist feel so free as to comment on it

in The penny politics of Victorian popular fiction