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Fern Elsdon-Baker

, the most obvious being the ‘scientific racism’ and eugenics movement, which saw enforced sterilisations in a number of countries worldwide. This may seem like a mere historical concern that relates only to the interwar period and the atrocities of Nazi Germany. However, eugenical programmes were adopted by a number of countries across North and Latin America, Europe, and Asia (Broberg and Rolls-Hansen, 2005; Stepan, 1991; Stone, 2001). It should also not be forgotten that the last of these laws in the USA was not repealed until as late as 1979, and in Alberta

in Science and the politics of openness
Abstract only
Helena Ifill

are in part responses to popular concerns about the state of education, it is significant that Braddon and Collins were writing these novels at a time when scientific theories and social policies were tending towards more deterministic, less optimistic conceptions of heredity, and beginning to consider eugenics as the means of halting social degeneration. Both authors are asserting the ability and responsibility of society to raise good citizens, and are to at least some extent buffering the individual from blame. Reading the novels collectively, there is also an

in Creating character
Open Access (free)
Tony Fitzpatrick

7 is also a revision of two earlier pieces of work: ‘Dis/Counting the Future’, Social Policy Review 13 (2001), edited by Rob Sykes, Cath Bochel and Nick Ellison, and ‘Making Welfare for Future Generations’, Social Policy and Administration 35(5) (2001). I am grateful to Policy Press and Blackwell, respectively, for permission to use these. Chapter 8 is a revised version of ‘Before The Cradle: New Genetics, Biopolicy And Regulated Eugenics’, Journal of Social Policy 30(4) (2001). Reprinted with permission of Cambridge University Press. The rest of the book was

in After the new social democracy
Abstract only
Martin Yuille and Bill Ollier

prevention. We use our powers of reasoning to plan how to improve our lives and in so doing, we transcend natural prevention. Securing our food supply via agriculture to prevent under-nutrition is an early and clear example of transcending natural prevention. Short-circuiting natural prevention can help satisfy human needs. But it has a different, darker aspect. It could, after all, be taken to mean practising eugenics. This is the conscious selection by some social actor, like the government, of some individuals as being suitable parents and the rejection of other

in Saving sick Britain
Open Access (free)
Religious influences on the depictions of science in mainstream movies
David A. Kirby and Amy C. Chambers

types considered movies an ideal tool for social propaganda. These activists included public health officials, medical researchers and progressive reformers who used movies in campaigns to disseminate scientific discoveries about public health and to promote faith in scientific solutions to what were referred to as ‘social diseases’ Playing God 281 such as syphilis, as well as other science-related social issues like eugenics and birth control (Parry, 2013; Pernick, 1996; Schaefer, 1999). The producers of medical propaganda films believed that they were

in Science and the politics of openness
John Field

, eugenics was completely consistent with a truly scientific socialism. After 1918, eugenicist influence remained limited. Although such ideas could be found in the Wood Report on mental deficiency in 1929, which ascribed much poor health and poverty to ‘poor mental endowment’, the most important voices in the medical and scientific community were those who pressed for institutionalisation rather than sterilisation.9 While the pauper colonies closed or stagnated after the First World War, growing numbers of colonies provided for the unhealthy. Epilepsy It was well known

in Working men’s bodies
Abstract only
Helena Ifill

Nathan Sheppard’s claim that ‘there is absolutely no limit’ to the rule of heredity, that ‘all things’ good and bad are the result of its effects, seems even more portentous, and this is indicative of a trend in thought about hereditary influence that would continue to the end of the century. Theories of degeneration and eugenics were increasingly entertained, although not always endorsed, by doctors, scientists and policy makers, and were circulated in periodicals aimed at both specialist and popular readerships. B. A. Morel’s Traité des dégénérescences physiques

in Creating character
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Arnold White and the parochial view of imperial citizenship
Daniel Gorman

writing. It was as a Cassandra that White was best known to his contemporaries, the voice of efficiency and eugenics, inveterate critic of all governments, and fervent English patriot. He pursued such criticism through his journalism, and he was particularly vociferous when he believed either the free flow of information or the privacy of the individual was jeopardized. White wrote

in Imperial citizenship
The medical Left and the lessons of science, 1918–48
John Stewart

, was not immune to the claims of eugenics.25 As with Bourne and Marrack, Murray was convinced that scientific medicine was essential both for humanity in general and for the socialist project in particular, but might be ‘frustrated’. So, for example, one of his publications sought to show how ‘Medicine, through the action of Science and scientific workers, has learned to defeat the causes of disease’. Hence, as he further put it, ‘modern medicine in many of its aspects gives a picture of science in action which is unequalled in any other field’.26 Among the reasons

in Scientific governance in Britain, 1914–79
Caroline Rusterholz

eugenics movements, scholars have shown that many doctors were still ignorant about contraception; some were reluctant to recommend contraception to their patients because they were afraid of undermining their scientific credentials given the enduring Victorian distaste for sex. These doctors thought that their role was to cure illnesses, and they believed that abstinence was the best way to limit family size. 5 Historian Richard Soloway has argued that the medical profession in Britain ‘reacted to the early birth

in Women’s medicine