(London and New York: Routledge, 2006), p. 74.
13 Geoffrey Edwards and Christoph O. Meyer, ‘Introduction: charting a contested
transformation’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 46:1 (2008), 1–25; Richard
Jackson, ‘An analysis of EU counterterrorism policy discourse’, Cambridge
Review of International Affairs, 20:2 (2007), 233–247.
14 The Council of Europe is an intergovernmentalorganisation, which is separate
from the EU. It is made up of 47 member states including all 28 EU member
states. It promotes human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
the interwar work of the UIA was not without consequence. In 1920, the
UAI’s World Congress of International Associations presented the draft
convention for an intergovernmentalorganisation for intellectual work. The
conceptualisation of this body as a ‘vast collective brain’ echoed the encyclopaedic aspects that featured so prominently in La Fontaine and Otlet’s work.111
However, the UIA’s campaign also exemplified two key dimensions of the
‘internationalisation of the intellectual field’.112 The first aspect was the support for a broadly defined constituency
debate in the section devoted to the topic focused
on establishing a permanent commission and the relationship it would have
with participating states. There was no international model on which to pattern
the commission. Intergovernmentalorganisations with the authority to make
States and statistics in the nineteenth century
binding decisions were still beyond the horizon. The statistics system in the
German Zollverein might have served as a model, except that everybody knew
its organisation was very weak.
A few of the
above the concerns of particular nations. The term
‘global’ is also associated with the growing
importance of actors beyond governmental or intergovernmentalorganisations and agencies, for example the media, internationally
influential foundations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and transnational corporations. 95 The work of
contemporary players of ‘global’ stature such as the
the central government to implement adjustment policies rather successfully in various areas such as fiscal policy and social development. However, it must be emphasised that neither Qatar nor the UAE have yet tackled necessary deep structural reforms, for instance in the fields of the labour market and income taxation policies.
Besides the domestic level, Arab Gulf states have also responded to the post-2014 oil price decline through mainly two intergovernmentalorganisations. These are the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
Organisational and programmatic developments among left-of-centre
of member parties and a smaller Committee elected by the Council (European Green Party, 2017b ). However, the PES arguably takes this intergovernmentalism the furthest, with no less than three intergovernmentalorganisations: the Council (which ‘contribute(s) to the shaping of the PES policy’ and ‘serve(s) as a platform for strategic discussions’ (Art. 29.1)); the Presidency (the ‘highest organ’ for day-to-day administration and implementing decisions of Council and Congress (Art. 33.1/2)) and the Leaders’ Conference, convoked by the President and held at least
democratisation and poverty reduction.
The Council of Europe in Strasbourg, founded in 1949, is an intergovernmentalorganisation working for ‘greater unity’ between its forty-four
member states ‘for the purpose of safeguarding and realising the ideals and
principles which are their common heritage and facilitating their economic
and social progress’. The Committee of Ministers (composed of the Ministers
of Foreign Affairs or their Permanent Representatives) is the Council’s
decision-making body. The Parliamentary Assembly is the organisation’s
for the formal endorsement of a Synthesis Report, in
which the main conclusions of the reports from all the three WGs
At WG and Panel Plenary levels, the IPCC is characterised by
an unprecedented openness. While it is only national delegates
(and scientists, in the endorsement of summaries at WG level) that
have formal voting power in the IPCC, all NGOs and intergovernmentalorganisations (IGOs) accredited within the UN system
can participate at IPCC meetings. At these levels, these meetings
have never been closed to participants from these
is obvious that when we are operating outside the WTO, in other
intergovernmentalorganisations, then we are representing the WTO as an
institution, and we have to be aware of that. It might be that in some
contexts, you know, if you are at an academic conference, you could try to
pretend that you are speaking in a personal capacity. (WTO 1)
The fairly small size of the WTO Secretariat and the fairly low turnover
of personnel accompany elements of an overarching Secretariat identity.
Our interviewees report that WTO officials attach fairly strong identities
European Commission and the European Parliament, SEE countries, regional
neighbouring countries, the US, Russia, as well as most of the major
regional intergovernmentalorganisations such as the OSCE and the
Council of Europe. Its aims have since been modified and the process has
been made responsible for inter-parliamentary relations under the SP.
The EU complemented the Royaumont Process with a so-called Regional