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Orian Brook, Dave O’Brien, and Mark Taylor

intersection between age and social class, and how class origins insulate some from the worst elements of unpaid labour. For those from middle-class, affluent origins, unpaid work is affordable. It can be an investment that pays off artistically and in terms of access to a creative career. For those from working-class origins unpaid work will often lead nowhere. It is experienced only as exploitation and certainly not as an opportunity for creative development. Our younger middle-class respondents spoke of the ability to take a show to Edinburgh, to take a long

in Culture is bad for you
Between respectable and risqué satire in 1848
Jo Briggs

informed both the journal’s contents and the way they were read. For Punch respectability was a desire then, rather than a given, and its contributors’ assertions of decorum should not be taken at face value. In 1848, against the backdrop of the fallout from the 10 April Chartist demonstration and ongoing arrests and plotting over the summer, Punch’s desire for respectable humour was threatened. This can be seen most clearly in the publication’s satires at the expense of the middle-class special constables who volunteered to assist to keep the peace on the day of the

in Novelty fair
Abstract only
J.W.M. Hichberger

The Crimean war, as we have seen, was used as evidence of the aristocracy’s ‘unfitness’ to rule the army. The middle classes increasingly claimed the right to a voice in its administration, and the system of purchase once more came under attack. It was the ranks which were the chief focus of middle-class agitation. The daily life of the common soldier was examined in a

in Images of the army
Laura Ugolini

feeling that the war would change lives fundamentally and perhaps irrevocably. This chapter and the next will thus explore some of the changes experienced by middle-class men as they went about their ‘everyday’ lives in wartime. Focusing particularly on the first twelve months or so of the war, this chapter will suggest that although ­middle-class men were physically distanced from the actual fighting, the war intruded in their lives in a variety of ways. Indeed, it was generally felt right that it should: few believed that people should continue their normal activities

in Civvies
Patriotism, empire and the First World War
Brad Beaven

's conversion to imperialism and have instead questioned the effectiveness of propaganda and the volunteers' motivation for enlisting. 2 This chapter, while investigating this historiographical discourse, explores the issue of working-class and middle-class patriotism during the war from a rather different perspective. It is argued here that both standard accounts of war enthusiasm fail to focus

in Visions of empire
The case of Tel Aviv
Miki Zaidman and Ruth Kark

suburb’ (1907), both in the UK, and Ahuzat Bayit (1909), as well as some physical similarities, has led researchers to seek a connection between the two, and to term Ahuzat Bayit a ‘garden neighbourhood’. At first, the garden city movement was a social-anarchist one, whose objective was to extend the suburban standard of housing, until then the province of the middle class, to the

in Garden cities and colonial planning
The consumer politics of popular liberalism
Peter Gurney

8 ‘The lion turned into a lamb’: the consumer politics of popular liberalism The Liberal leader William Gladstone understood both the pleasures and pains of consumerism very well. He amassed an impressive art collection during his political career, which he reluctantly sold for financial reasons when nearing retirement. More mundanely, Gladstone also participated in the ‘china craze’ that gripped the middle classes in the 1860s, and could wax lyrical about his Worcester porcelain.1 Though his record as Chancellor of the Exchequer is much better known to

in Wanting and having
Abstract only
Andrew Smith

discuss literary texts and scientific knowledge in culturally contextualised ways. The range of issues and case histories which I discuss help to develop our understanding of the constructions of masculinity during the period. Such constructions, although staged in different literary, quasi-scientific, or strictly medical contexts, are united by a shared concern that the middle-class male had become

in Victorian demons
Open Access (free)
George Campbell Gosling

fellow’. 4 Meanwhile, the surgeon was ‘interested’ in George, who was ‘so obviously middle class. And he guessed he must have been pretty low’ for his doctor to have sent him there. As a poor patient of middle-class character, the surgeon knew ‘Anderson would get the same skill – if not the same nursing – for nothing.’ He explained the medical details ‘to the students who, recognising Anderson as one of their own class, felt slightly

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
Sexual incitement as a capital crime
Lucy Bland

female body. One day in the Police Court she was wearing ‘a brown coat with mole fur collar and cuffs, a hat also of fur, and plain white gloves. Beneath her brown coat was a grey crepe de chine dress trimmed with black silk.’16 (Gloves and hats were essential wear for respectable middle-class women in the 1920s; fur also was widely worn by the middleclasses.)17 Other days in court, Edith’s coat generally appeared to be the same, but the hats changed: ‘a large velour hat’, ‘a small hat and veil’, ‘a velvet Tam-o-Shanter’, ‘a black velvety hat with black quills’.18

in Modern women on trial