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On 25 January 1474, in Dijon, Charles the bold, robed in silk, gold and precious jewels, wearing a headpiece giving the illusion of a crown, expressed cryptically in front of his subjects his desire to become a king. Three years later, the battle of Nancy, taking Charles to his death, plunged the Great Principality of Burgundy into the drama of its split. This book, innovative and essential, not only explores Burgundian historiography and history but offers a complete synthesis about the nature of politics in this space considered from both the north and the south. Focusing on political ideologies, the book’s scope is wide-ranging and raises a number of important issues about the nature of the medieval state, the signification of the nation under the Ancien Regime, the role of warfare in the creation of political power, the impact of political loyalties in the exercise of government and even the place of symbolic communication and geographical knowledge in a wide territory lying from northern county of Holland to the southern grapevines of Mâcon. In examining all these issues, the book challenges a number of existing ideas about the Burgundian state. Questioning the means to create a viable political community, it offers a completely new interpretation of Burgundian history in the later Middle Ages, and new ideas also relevant to the historians of other European states in the later Middle Ages.

Language, politics and counter-terrorism
Author: Richard Jackson

This book is about the public language of the 'war on terrorism' and the way in which language has been deployed to justify and normalise a global campaign of counter-terrorism. It explains how the war on terrorism has been reproduced and amplified by key social actors and how it has become the dominant political narrative in America today, enjoying widespread bipartisan and popular support. The book also explains why the language of politics is so important and the main methodological approach for analysing the language of counter-terrorism, namely, critical discourse analysis. Then, it provides the comparison drawn between the September 11, 2001 attacks and World War II and the attack on Pearl Harbor. One of the most noticeable aspects of the language surrounding the attacks of September 11, 2001 is its constant reference to tragedy, grievance and the exceptional suffering of the American people. The book focuses on the way in which language was deployed to construct the main identities of the protagonists. It demonstrates how terrorism is rhetorically constructed as posing a catastrophic threat to the American 'way of life', to freedom, liberty and democracy and even to civilisation itself. The book analyses how the administration's counter-terrorism campaign has been rhetorically constructed as an essentially 'good' and 'just war', similar to America's role in World War II. Finally, the book concludes that responsible citizens have a moral duty to oppose and resist the official language of counter-terrorism.

Open Access (free)
Alex J. Bellamy

2 Re-imagining the nation Some years before the ‘Warwick debate’, the journal Millennium held a symposium entitled ‘re-imagining the nation’.1 In his introduction to the volume, Adam Lerner suggested that ‘[t]he nation exists as much in people’s minds as it does in the world’.2 By this, he seemed to be suggesting that the nation could be viewed as real and constructed, primordial and modern. The contributors to this collection agreed that the ‘great divide’ offered unsatisfactory ways of understanding the formation of national identity and shared a desire to ‘re

in The formation of Croatian national identity
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Englishness, ‘race’ and ethnic identities
Paul Thomas

. The new political realities in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have inevitably shifted attention towards Englishness, to what it means and how much people living in England identify with it, in comparison to the over-arching ‘British’ identity now perceived to be under serious threat. Debates about national identity have the dangerous potential to become racialised and

in These Englands
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Eating, cooking, reading and writing in British women’s fiction, 1770–1830
Author: Sarah Moss

The study of food in literature complicates established critical positions. Both a libidinal pleasure and the ultimate commodity, food in fiction can represent sex as well as money, and brings the body and the marketplace together in ways that are sometimes obvious and sometimes unsettling. This book explores these relations in the context of late eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century women's fiction, where concerns about bodily, economic and intellectual productivity and consumption power decades of novels, conduct books and popular medicine. The introduction suggests ways in which attention to food in these texts might complicate recent developments in literary theory and criticism, while the body of the book is devoted to close readings of novels and children's stories by Frances Burney, Mary Wollstonecraft, Maria Edgeworth and Susan Ferrier. Burney and Wollstonecraft explore the ways in which eating and not eating (mis)represent women's sexuality, and consider how women's intellectual and economic productivity might disrupt easy equations between appetites at the table and in bed. Edgeworth and Ferrier, Anglo-Irish and Scottish writers respectively, are more interested in cooking and eating as ways of enacting and manipulating national identity and class.

Language, education and the Catholic Church
Alex J. Bellamy

cannot be determined by the fact that it is more or less similar, completely dissimilar or very similar to some other language.’3 Because of the perceived importance of language in framing national identity, the language question not only dominated political debate during the Yugoslav period but also continued to create controversy in independent Croatia. In the early 1990s, Vjesnik ran a campaign complaining about the proliferation of English names among new businesses in Zagreb. This campaign was taken up by a HDZ representative in the Sabor who proposed a law

in The formation of Croatian national identity
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Ben Tonra

, is any particular interest in linking changes in the Republic of Ireland’s international role with a transformation of its national identity. If such a linkage were to be made then the story of Irish foreign policy would not be based upon an excavation of individual, strategic or domestic interests but would be rooted in a changing sense of self and an evolving set of intersubjective beliefs. This is also a point that appears to be evident to policy makers. In 1996 an Irish Foreign Minister, introducing the first comprehensive White Paper on Irish foreign policy

in Global citizen and European Republic
The Conservative Party in opposition, 1997–2010
Author: Richard Hayton

Why did it take the Conservative Party so long to recover power? After a landslide defeat in 1997, why was it so slow to adapt, reposition itself and rebuild its support? How did the party leadership seek to reconstruct conservatism and modernise its electoral appeal?

This highly readable book addresses these questions through a contextualised assessment of Conservative Party politics between 1997 and 2010. By tracing the debates over strategy amongst the party elite, and scrutinising the actions of the leadership, it situates David Cameron and his ‘modernising’ approach in relation to that of his three immediate predecessors: Michael Howard, Iain Duncan Smith and William Hague. This holistic view, encompassing this period of opposition in its entirety, aids the identification of strategic trends and conflicts and a comprehension of the evolving Conservative response to New Labour’s statecraft.

Secondly, the book considers in depth four particular dilemmas for contemporary Conservatism: European integration; national identity and the ‘English Question’; social liberalism versus social authoritarianism; and the problems posed by a neo-liberal political economy. The book argues that the ideological legacy of Thatcherism played a central role in framing and shaping these intraparty debates, and that an appreciation of this is vital for explaining the nature and limits of the Conservatives’ renewal under Cameron.

Students of British politics, party politics and ideologies will find this volume essential reading, and it will also be of great interest to anyone concerned with furthering their understanding of contemporary British political history.

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Karen Garner

What happens when sentiments of friendship and enmity are politicized and when distinctions between individual self-identities and national identities and allegiances dissolve during times of war? This history explores those questions through the words and actions of a few key male leaders who determined national policies for Great Britain and America in relation to neutral Ireland during the Second World War. It examines the personal friendships and embittered conflicts among British, American, and Irish national

in Friends and enemies
The role of constitutions in Fijian national identity
Christopher Mudaliar

2 Co-constituting Fijian identity: the role of constitutions in Fijian national identity Christopher Mudaliar Identity is often assumed to be something that can be possessed and retained by actors, rather than contestable and multiple. Rather than possessing an ‘innateness’, identity can be contingent upon a range of inter-subjective meanings that are generated by social interaction (Howarth 2005). These social interactions generally rely upon and are expressed mainly through language and other forms of communication (Mead 1982). This situates identity as a

in The politics of identity