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Ian Bellany

3 The International Atomic Energy Agency and safeguards ‘Safeguards’ is the slightly euphemistic term officially used to describe the measures taken by the Agency (or Vienna Agency) independently to verify the declarations made by states to the IAEA concerning their nuclear material (principally enriched uranium and plutonium) and that the uses it is put to have peaceful ends. The chief method employed for verification is the despatch periodically of inspectors to the territory of the states concerned and with their agreement. The inspectors have the job of

in Curbing the spread of nuclear weapons
Open Access (free)
Geir Hønneland and Anne-Kristin Jørgensen

environment were in a dire state when the Union was dissolved in 1991. Several of these problems, in particular air pollution and the danger of nuclear radiation, are of a transboundary character and of such gravity that they pose serious threats to the outside world.6 Moreover, post-Soviet Russian politics have more than anything been characterised by chaos and unpredictability; all the more interesting is it then to see whether relatively stable policy patterns can be found across various cases in Russian environmental politics. Finally, although there has been a certain

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
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New conflicts, rearmament and the bomb
Rhiannon Vickers

Commonwealth. It also affected the party’s reaction to the events in Suez. Gaitskell condemned Eden’s actions, arguing that they ‘will have done irreparable harm to the prestige and reputation of our country’, as Britain’s world role rested on its good standing within the world.5 However, while the party was united in its commitment to internationalism, and in its perception of Britain’s continuing world role, there were increasingly different implications for the left and the centre-right when it came to defence strategy, rearmament and the production and testing of nuclear

in The Labour Party and the world
Daniel Gerster

upon a dualism between ‘Good’ and ‘Evil’ and justified war against heretics or non-believers as God-wished or God-made.3 In addition, Christians affected by war and violence were always looking for explanations for war in order to come to terms with their fate. They found relief by imagining the violent act of war as ‘God’s revenge’ or as the beginning of the apocalypse.4 During the Cold War, Christians could employ these centuries-old discourses when experiencing the ongoing nuclear arms race as a mental threat – an imaginary war. In this chapter, I examine how

in Understanding the imaginary war
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An insider’s view

I am not an ethicist, but I have given a great deal of thought to the morality of the use of force and, in particular, the concept of nuclear deterrence. I have served in Polaris and Trident ballistic-missile submarines (ship – submersible, ballistic, nuclear or SSBN) on and off since 1986, including command of two Vanguard Class submarines, HMS Vengeance and HMS Vanguard , between 2003 and 2007. I therefore have had ample opportunity, and motivation, to reconcile the full potential of my personal

in Supreme emergency
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Managing an AI future
James Johnson

This book has advanced the case for narrow AI as a fundamentally destabilizing force, which could increase the risk of nuclear war. It has explained how, left unchecked, the uncertainties created by the rapid proliferation and diffusion of AI into advanced weapon systems will become a significant source of future instability and great-power (especially US–China) strategic competition. The book has conceptualized recent technological developments in AI with the broader spectrum of emerging technologies

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
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Günther Anders and the history of anti-nuclear critique
Jason Dawsey

v 7 v After Hiroshima: Günther Anders and the history of anti-nuclear critique Jason Dawsey The rich scholarship on the worldwide anti-nuclear movement has not yet been matched by comparable work on the history of anti-nuclear thought. With regard to the long and unfinished struggle to abolish the Bomb, a rigid division of labour between social historians and intellectual historians can only perpetuate the classic (and flawed) bifurcation of activists and theorists. Many of the critiques of the atomic threat produced after 1945 yielded extraordinary ideas

in Understanding the imaginary war
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Opening the AI Pandora’s box
James Johnson

The hype surrounding AI 1 has made it easy to overstate the opportunities and challenges posed by the development and deployment of AI in the military sphere. 2 Many of the risks posed by AI in the nuclear domain today are not necessarily new. That is, recent advances in AI (especially machine learning (ML) techniques) exacerbate existing risks to escalation and stability rather than generating entirely new ones. While AI could enable significant improvements in many military domains – including the nuclear enterprise

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
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Becky Alexis-Martin

Manchester: Something rich and strange Radium – Becky Alexis-Martin Nestled between carefully conserved cotton mills and glimmering new developments in Ancoats is a little road named Radium Street. It is unusual for any place to be named after a radioactive element, beyond the confines of military ‘closed cities’ where nuclear weapons are manufactured. Radium Street was originally called German Street, after a German toy importer’s warehouse that was located in the area. The street was renamed after the First World War to conceal its Teutonic heritage, and to

in Manchester
Stanley R. Sloan

most. In this mix of continuity and change, the bargain has constantly evolved. More dramatic change came after the Cold War ended, but even in the 35 years between 1954 and 1989, a number of things changed. The allies, acting unilaterally in some cases and in concert in others, made conscious changes in and amendments to the bargain. Some of these changes were inspired by developments over which the allies had little control (such as the Soviet Union’s drive toward nuclear parity with the United States, calling into question NATO’s nuclear strategy), while

in Defense of the West (second edition)